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Jie Jiang
and
Tianjun Zhou

Abstract

Multidecadal variations in the global land monsoon were observed during the twentieth century, with an overall increasing trend from 1901 to 1955 that was followed by a decreasing trend up to 1990, but the mechanisms governing the above changes remain inconclusive. Based on the outputs of two atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced by historical sea surface temperature (SST) covering the twentieth century, supplemented with AGCM simulations forced by idealized SST anomalies representing different conditions of the North Atlantic and tropical Pacific, evidence shows that the observed changes can be partly reproduced, particularly over the Northern Hemisphere summer monsoon (NHSM) domain, demonstrating the modulation of decadal SST changes on the long-term variations in monsoon precipitation. Moisture budget analysis is performed to understand the interdecadal changes in monsoon precipitation, and the dynamic term associated with atmospheric circulation changes is found to be prominent, while the contribution of the thermodynamic term associated with humidity changes can lead to coincident wetting over the NHSM domain. The increase (decrease) in NHSM land precipitation during 1901–55 (1956–90) is associated with the strengthening (weakening) of NHSM circulation and Walker circulation. The multidecadal scale changes in atmospheric circulation are driven by SST anomalies over the North Atlantic and the Pacific. A warmer North Atlantic together with a colder eastern tropical Pacific and a warmer western subtropical Pacific can lead to a strengthened meridional gradient in mid-to-upper-tropospheric thickness and strengthened trade winds, which transport more water vapor into monsoon regions, leading to an increase in monsoon precipitation.

Full access
Jie Jiang
,
Tianjun Zhou
,
Xiaolong Chen
, and
Bo Wu

Abstract

Known as one of the largest semiarid to arid regions in the world, central Asia and its economy and ecosystem are highly sensitivity to the changes in precipitation. The observed precipitation and related hydrographic characteristics have exhibited robust decadal variations in the past decades, but the reason remains unknown. Using the pacemaker experiments of the Community Earth System Model (CESM1.2), we find that the tropical Pacific decadal variability (TPDV) and the Atlantic multidecadal variability (AMV) are the main drivers of the interdecadal variations in central Asian precipitation during 1955–2004. Both the decadal-scale warming of the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic are favorable for wetter conditions over central Asia. The positive TPDV is accompanied with high sea level pressure (SLP) over the Indo–western Pacific warm pool. Southwesterly winds along the northwestern flank of the high SLP can transport more moisture to southeastern central Asia. The warm AMV can excite a circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) pattern. A trough node of the CGT to the west of central Asia drives an anomalous ascending motion and increased precipitation over this region. The results based on the CESM model are further demonstrated by the pacemaker experiments of MRI-ESM2-0. Based on the observational TPDV and AMV indices, we reasonably reconstruct the historical precipitation over central Asia. Our results provide hints for the decadal prediction of precipitation over central Asia.

Open access
Zhihong Jiang
,
Fei Huo
,
Hongyun Ma
,
Jie Song
, and
Aiguo Dai

Abstract

Impacts of urbanization and anthropogenic aerosols in China on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) are investigated using version 5.1 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.1) by comparing simulations with and without incorporating urban land cover and/or anthropogenic aerosol emissions. Results show that the increase of urban land cover causes large surface warming and an urban frictional drag, both leading to a northeasterly wind anomaly in the lower troposphere over eastern China (EC). This weakens the southerly winds associated with the EASM and causes a convergence anomaly in southern China (SC) with increased ascent, latent heating, and cloudiness. The enhanced latent heating reinforces surface convergence and upper-level divergence over SC, leading to more northward advection in the upper level into northern China (NC) and descending between 30° and 50°N over East Asia. Cloudiness reduction, adiabatic heating, and warm advection over NC all enhance the urban heating there, together causing anomalous tropospheric warming at those latitudes over East Asia. Anthropogenic aerosols cause widespread cooling at the surface and in the troposphere over EC, which decreases the summer land–ocean thermal contrast, leading to a weakened EASM circulation with reduced moisture transport to NC. This results in wetter and drier conditions over SC and NC, respectively. When both the urbanization and anthropogenic aerosols are included in the model, aerosols’ cooling is partially offset by the urban heating, and their joint effect on the circulation is dominated by the aerosols’ effect with a reduced magnitude. In the combined experiment, surface and tropospheric temperatures are also altered by the decrease (increase) in cloudiness over NC (SC) with most of the cooling confined to SC, which further weakens the EASM circulation.

Full access
Pingzhi Fang
,
Wendong Jiang
,
Jie Tang
,
Xiaotu Lei
, and
Jianguo Tan

Abstract

Variations in friction velocity with wind speed and height are studied under moderate (≥9 m s−1)-to-strong onshore wind conditions caused by three landfalling typhoons. Wind data are from a coastal 100-m tower equipped with 20-Hz ultrasonic anemometers at three heights. Results show that wind direction affects variations in friction velocity with wind speed. A leveling off or decrease in friction velocity occurs at a critical wind speed of ~20 m s−1 under strong onshore wind conditions. Friction velocity does not always decrease with height in the surface layer under typhoon conditions. Thus, height-based corrections on friction velocities using the model from Anctil and Donelan may not be reliable. Surface-layer heights predicted by the model that are based on Ekman dynamics are verified by comparing with those determined by a proposed method that is based on the idea of mean boundary layer using wind-profile data from one of the landfalling typhoons. Friction velocity at the top of the surface layer is then estimated. Results show that friction velocity decreases by about 20% from its surface value and agrees well with previous results of Tennekes.

Free access
Yueqi Zhou
,
Tianjun Zhou
,
Jie Jiang
,
Xiaolong Chen
,
Bo Wu
,
Shuai Hu
, and
Mingna Wu

Abstract

The 1931 Yangtze River flood in eastern China, which had an associated death toll of over 2 million, is regarded as one of the world’s deadliest natural disasters on record. However, due to the lack of meteorological data before the 1950s, the causes of this event are rarely investigated. Here, we combine multiple lines of evidence from recently available historical observations, reanalysis datasets, and atmospheric general circulation model simulations driven by historical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) that cover the early twentieth century to reveal the physical mechanisms underlying this flood. We find that the flooding in 1931 along the Yangtze River valley was dominated by July rainfall. Although the rainfall totals in July 1931 were not the largest in history (ranking second over the past century), the totals exceeded those for many other pluvial years between 1951 and 2010 in terms of its persistence, which was associated with a steady western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH). The flooding resulted from the combined effects of tropical El Niño–related SST forcing and extratropical wave activities over the Eurasian continent. On the one hand, warm SST anomalies in the tropical Indian Ocean following an El Niño event led to the southwestward extension of the WPSH. On the other hand, the southward shift of the westerly jet due to extratropical wave activities prevented the normal northward movement of the WPSH typical in July. Additionally, the impact that the preceding springtime precipitation and soil moisture had on the summer flood of 1931 is also discussed.

Restricted access
Jie Jiang
,
Tianjun Zhou
,
Hailong Wang
,
Yun Qian
,
David Noone
, and
Wenmin Man

Abstract

Central Asia is a semiarid to arid region that is sensitive to hydrological changes. We use the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), equipped with a water-tagging capability, to investigate the major moisture sources for climatological precipitation and its long-term trends over central Asia. Europe, the North Atlantic Ocean, and local evaporation, which explain 33.2% ± 1.5%, 23.0% ± 2.5%, and 19.4% ± 2.2% of the precipitation, respectively, are identified as the most dominant moisture sources for northern central Asia (NCA). For precipitation over southern central Asia (SCA), Europe, the North Atlantic, and local evaporation contribute 25.4% ± 2.7%, 18.0% ± 1.7%, and 14.7% ± 1.9%, respectively. In addition, the contributions of South Asia (8.6% ± 1.7%) and the Indian Ocean (9.5% ± 2.0%) are also substantial for SCA. Modulated by the seasonal meridional shift in the subtropical westerly jet, moisture originating from the low and midlatitudes is important in winter, spring, and autumn, whereas northern Europe contributes more to summer precipitation. We also explain the observed drying trends over southeastern central Asia in spring and over NCA in summer during 1956–2005. The drying trend over southeastern central Asia in spring is mainly due to the decrease in local evaporation and weakened moisture fluxes from the Arabian Peninsula and Arabian Sea associated with the warming of the western Pacific Ocean. The drying trend over NCA in summer can be attributed to a decrease in local evaporation and reduced moisture from northern Europe that is due to the southward shift of the subtropical westerly jet.

Full access
Jun Jiang
,
Wei Yan
,
Shuo Ma
,
Yangyang Jie
,
Xiarong Zhang
,
Shensen Hu
,
Lei Fan
, and
Linyu Xia

Abstract

The day–night band (DNB) low-light-level visible sensor, mounted on the Suomi–National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite, can measure visible radiances from the earth and atmosphere (solar/lunar reflection, and natural/anthropogenic nighttime light emissions) during both day and night and can achieve unprecedented nighttime low-light-level imaging with its accurate radiometric calibration and fine spatiotemporal resolution. Based on the good characteristics of DNB, a multichannel threshold (MCT) algorithm combining DNB with other Visible–Infrared Imager–Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) channels is proposed to monitor nighttime fog/low stratus. Through a gradual separation of the underlying surface (land, vegetation, water bodies, and city lights), snow, and high/medium clouds, a fog/low-stratus region can ultimately be extracted by the algorithm. Then, the algorithmic feasibility is verified by three typical cases of heavy fog/low stratus in China. The experimental results demonstrate that the outcomes of the MCT algorithm approximately coincide with the ground-measured results. Furthermore, the MCT algorithm shows promise for nighttime fog/low-stratus detection in some example cases with about a 0.84 average probability of detection (POD), a 0.73 average critical success index (CSI), and a 0.15 average false alarm ratio (FAR), which reveals some improvement over the conventional dual-channel difference (DCD) algorithm.

Full access
Shunlin Liang
,
Jie Cheng
,
Kun Jia
,
Bo Jiang
,
Qiang Liu
,
Zhiqiang Xiao
,
Yunjun Yao
,
Wenping Yuan
,
Xiaotong Zhang
,
Xiang Zhao
, and
Ji Zhou

Abstract:

The Global Land Surface Satellite (GLASS) product suite currently contains 12 products, including leaf area index, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, fraction of green vegetation coverage, gross primary production, broadband albedo, broadband longwave emissivity, downward shortwave radiation and photosynthetically active radiation, land surface temperature, downward and upwelling thermal radiation, all-wave net radiation, and evapotranspiration. These products are generated from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data. Their unique features include long-term temporal coverage (many from 1981 to the present), high spatial resolutions of the surface radiation products (1 km and 0.05°), spatial continuities without missing pixels, and high quality and accuracy based on extensive validation using in situ measurements and intercomparisons with other existing satellite products. Moreover, the GLASS products are based on robust algorithms that have been published in peer-reviewed literature. Herein, we provide an overview of the algorithm development, product characteristics, and some preliminary applications of these products. We also describe the next steps, such as improving the existing GLASS products, generating more climate data records (CDRs), broadening product dissemination, and fostering their wider utilization. The GLASS products are freely available to the public.

Full access
Shenjia Ma
,
Chaohui Chen
,
Hongrang He
,
Jie Xiang
,
Shengjie Chen
,
Yi Li
,
Yongqiang Jiang
,
Dan Wu
, and
Hao Luo

Abstract

In this study, a convection-allowing ensemble prediction experiment was conducted on a strong convective weather process, based on the local breeding growth mode (LBGM) method proposed according to the strongly local nature of the convective-scale weather system. A comparative analysis of the evolution characteristics of the initial perturbation was also performed, considering the results from the traditional breeding growth mode (BGM) method, to enhance understanding and application of this new initial perturbation generation method. The experimental results showed that LBGM results in the perturbation distribution exhibiting characteristics more evident of flow dependence, and an initial perturbation with greater definite kinetic significance was derived. Information entropy theory could well measure the amount of information contained in the perturbation distribution, indicating that the innovative initial perturbation generation method can increase the amount of local information associated with the initial perturbation. With regard to the physical perturbation quantities, the LBGM method can improve the dispersion of the ensemble prediction system, thereby solving the problem of insufficient ensemble spread of prediction systems obtained by the traditional BGM method. Simultaneously, the root-mean-square error of the prediction can be further reduced, and the predicted precipitation distribution is closer to the observed precipitation, thereby improving the prediction effect of the convection-allowing ensemble prediction. The LBGM method has advantages compared to the traditional method and provides a new theoretical basis for further development of initial perturbation technologies for convection-allowing ensemble prediction.

Full access
Chunhui Lu
,
Jie Jiang
,
Ruidan Chen
,
Safi Ullah
,
Rong Yu
,
Fraser C. Lott
,
Simon F. B. Tett
, and
Buwen Dong
Open access