Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 42 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jie Zhang x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Tianjun Zhou
and
Jie Zhang

Abstract

Recent studies have identified different modes associated with two flavors of El Niño in terms of the three-dimensional structure of atmospheric temperature. The first is a deep-warm mode, which features a coherent zonal mean warming throughout the troposphere from 30°N to 30°S with cooling aloft. The second is a shallow-warm mode, which features strong wave signatures in the troposphere with warmth (coolness) over the central Pacific (western Pacific). The ability to simulate these two modes is a useful metric for evaluating climate models. To understand the reproducibility of these two modes, the authors analyzed the multimodel ensemble mean (MMEM) of 11 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) that participated in the second phase of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II). Each model was run in an AGCM-alone mode forced by historical sea surface temperatures covering the period 1980–99. The authors find that atmospheric temperature variability is generally well captured in the MMEM of AMIP II models, demonstrating that the observational changes documented here are driven by SST changes during the El Niño events and the variety of vertical temperature structures associated with two flavors of El Niño are highly reproducible. The model skill for the first mode is slightly higher than the second mode. The skill in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere is lower than for the tropospheric counterpart, especially at high latitudes. The performances of individual models are also assessed. The authors also show some differences from previous data analyses, including the variance accounted for by the two modes, as well as the lead–lag relationship of the shallow-warm mode with the Niño-3.4 index.

Full access
Jie Zhang
,
Haishan Chen
, and
Siwen Zhao

Abstract

Because of the interactive margin between the East Asian summer monsoon and westerly circulation, summer rainfall in northern China (NC) exhibits high variability. By employing reanalysis data and geostationary satellite data from the Fengyun-2G (FY-2G) satellite and using the linear baroclinic model (LBM) and Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model, this study suggests a tripole pattern in summer rainfall over NC and the Indian subcontinent (IS) that is related to the Indian summer monsoon. The distributions of atmospheric circulation indicate three teleconnections: one is from the IS via the Indo-China Peninsula (ICP) and NC, enhancing the Pacific–Japan (PJ) pattern; another is from the IS via west-central Asia and NC, arousing a Eurasian wave pattern; and the third is an IS–TP–NC pattern via the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Those teleconnections modulate vorticity and atmospheric stability over NC. In addition, along with the circulation distribution related to those teleconnections, two pathways of moisture transport related to the IS rainfall are suggested, except for moisture transport via the Bay of Bengal: one is from the Indo-Pacific to NC due to enhancing cyclones over the Indo-Pacific and a PJ-like pattern; and another is from the IS to NC via the TP within the midtroposphere, which modulates midtroposphere moisture fluxes and atmospheric stability over NC. Both teleconnections and moisture transport result in anomalous rainfall over NC. This study reveals a new mechanism and pathway of the Indian summer monsoon impacting NC rainfall, possibly explaining the reason behind the high variability in NC rainfall.

Open access
Liwei Zou
,
Tianjun Zhou
,
Laurent Li
, and
Jie Zhang

Abstract

A variable-grid atmospheric general circulation model, namely, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique-zoom, version 4 (LMDz4), with a local zoom over eastern China, is driven by 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) data and is used as a downscaling tool of summer rainfall variability for the period 1958–2000. During the integration, the model temperature and wind were nudged to the ERA-40 data through a relaxation procedure. The performance of the LMDz4 in simulating the regional rainfall features is thoroughly assessed through a comparison to both rain gauge data and the reanalysis product. The dynamical downscaling improves not only the climatology of the monsoon major rainband but also the interannual variability modes of rainfall over eastern China in comparison with that of the ERA-40 data. The added values of LMDz4 are evident in both the spatial patterns of dominant rainfall variability modes and the associated temporal variations. A comparison of rainfall averaged over several typical regions shows improvement as a better-matched variability and a reduced root-mean-square error, except for the region over the lower reaches of the Yellow River valley, where the model shows bias because of the northward shift of the monsoon rainband. This rainband shift is caused by the stronger low-level southerlies and the lower specific humidity over southern China. The stronger southwestern wind transports excessive water vapor northward, and the underestimation of specific humidity implies that air masses need to go farther north to reach condensation. Both favor a northward shift of the major rainband. The analysis demonstrates that a variable-resolution AGCM can be a useful tool for the dynamical downscaling of rainfall variability over eastern China, although the rainband bias remains evident as with many other regional climate models.

Full access
Jie Cao
,
Wei-kang Zhang
, and
Yun Tao

Abstract

This paper describes the study of the relationship between the thermal configuration of the Bay of Bengal (BOB)–Tibetan Plateau (TP) region and the precipitation anomaly in Yunnan, a province in China, in May using ERA-Interim data and precipitation data for May from 125 meteorological stations across Yunnan for 1979–2014. Results from the analysis indicate that the interannual variability of May precipitation in Yunnan is significantly modulated by the BOB–TP thermal configuration. Model runs with a linear baroclinic model suggest physical consistency. The thermal conditions over the BOB mainly impact the May precipitation anomaly in Yunnan via changes in water vapor transport from the eastern BOB northeastward to southwestern Yunnan. The second factor influencing precipitation anomalies relates to the characteristics and variability of cold air transport from the TP to northeastern Yunnan. When the BOB (the TP) is occupied by positive (negative) diabatic heating, a thermal gradient with a warmer (colder) center over the BOB and a colder (warmer) center over the TP is established, and more-than-normal (less than normal) precipitation in Yunnan will occur in May. This relationship can persist from April to the following May to some extent; therefore, the BOB–TP thermal configuration in April could be used to forecast May precipitation in Yunnan.

Full access
Yunxia Zheng
,
Zhanhong Ma
,
Jie Tang
, and
Zheliang Zhang

Abstract

The characteristics of in-storm cooling occurring ahead of the eye center are investigated based on a combination of observations and numerical simulations, as well as its sensitivity to tropical cyclone (TC) characteristics and oceanic climatological conditions. A composite of drifter and remote sensing observations from 1979 to 2020 in the Northern Hemisphere statistically evidences that the percentage of TC-induced ahead-of-eye-center cooling is enhanced remarkably over the coastal ocean compared with that over the open sea, no matter what the TC intensity, translation speed, and prestorm SST conditions are. Results are statistically similar when the actual ahead-of-eye SST cooling is used. Idealized numerical simulation results show that as the TC center approaches the coastline, the percentage of ahead-of-eye-center cooling increases steadily with the water depth shallowing below 100 m. This phenomenon may not be caused by strong stratification of the coastal ocean, as previous studies suggested. An ocean heat balance analysis reveals a new mechanism responsible for the enhanced percentage of ahead-of-eye-center cooling near the coast: although the vertical mixing dominates in the surface cooling process over the open sea, broad and intense advection is largely responsible for the rapid increase of the percentage of ahead-of-eye-center cooling over the coastal ocean, owing to less cold-water entrainment from below. A series of sensitivity experiments are conducted by varying TC characteristics in terms of intensity, translation speed, radius of maximum wind speed, and ocean characteristics in terms of temperature profiles and slope rates of the shelf. The percentage of ahead-of-eye-center cooling is dependent on the intensity and translation speed of TCs but shows little sensitivity to other parameters.

Restricted access
Jie Zhang
,
Rui Hu
,
Qianrong Ma
, and
Miaomiao Niu

Abstract

Summer monsoon precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has significant impacts on the ecology, economy, and Asian climate, but has exhibited anomalous spatial distribution since the early twenty-first century. To explore its distribution and attribution, this study investigated the northernmost boundary of the summer monsoon over the TP (TPSM) and the related precipitation. The TPSM and related precipitation extended poleward in the post-2000 period in response to the rising Arabian Sea surface temperature (ARB_SST) in the late spring and early summer. A warming Arabian Sea leads to the westward movement of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) circulation and moisture convergence with a higher moisture layer, which exerts a midlatitude wave train that exhibits a dipole mode (a west cyclone and an east anticyclone) over the TP. Consequently, the west trough and southerly are strengthened, which is conducive to transporting more poleward moisture mass from the moisture layer over the ISM zone through the midwestern TP. Furthermore, it contributes to the poleward TPSM and precipitation in the northern TP by coupling with the dipole mode. These findings help explain the wetting of the Asian dryland and its effects on the Northern Hemispheric climate.

Open access
Haishan Chen
,
Bo Yu
,
Botao Zhou
,
Wanxin Zhang
, and
Jie Zhang

Abstract

Significant summer land surface warming has been observed in the middle latitudes over East Asia, especially after the mid-1990s, which has evidently affected the East Asian weather and climate. Using multisource observations and reanalysis data during 1979–2013, this study explores the possible reasons for recent land surface warming over this region by considering atmospheric forcing and regional land–atmosphere interaction related to extratropical cyclones (ECs). Results show that there is a close relationship between land surface warming and weakened ECs over East Asia. Recent land surface warming was attributed to local atmospheric forcing and feedback of land–atmosphere interaction associated with weakened ECs. The abnormal large-scale circulation associated with anomalous ECs produced evident dynamic forcing on the land surface. Weakened ECs are usually accompanied by an abnormal high pressure system and anticyclonic circulation around Lake Baikal, which benefit the intensification of anomalous southerly wind in the rear of the anomalous anticyclone, leading to positive temperature advection and temperature increase over East Asia. Meanwhile, the anomalous adiabatic warming caused by abnormal descending motion associated with the anticyclonic anomaly also contributes to local warming. The feedback of local land–atmosphere interaction plays an important role in land surface warming. Weakened ECs increase both incident solar radiation and precipitation. The increased precipitation reduces the soil moisture and in turn weakens the surface evaporation and local cooling effect, resulting in land surface warming. Our findings are helpful for better understanding the mechanisms responsible for recent summer land surface warming over East Asia as well as its climatic effects.

Open access
Jie Peng
,
Zhanqing Li
,
Hua Zhang
,
Jianjun Liu
, and
Maureen Cribb

Abstract

It has been widely recognized that aerosols can modify cloud properties, but it remains uncertain how much the changes and associated variations in cloud radiative forcing are related to aerosol loading. Using 4 yr of A-Train satellite products generated from CloudSat, the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations satellite, and the Aqua satellite, the authors investigated the systematic changes of deep cloud properties and cloud radiative forcing (CRF) with respect to changes in aerosol loading over the entire tropics. Distinct correlations between CRF and aerosol loading were found. Systematic variations in both shortwave and longwave CRF with increasing aerosol index over oceans and aerosol optical depth over land for mixed-phase clouds were identified, but little change was seen in liquid clouds. The systematic changes are consistent with the microphysical effect and the aerosol invigoration effect. Although this study cannot fully exclude the influence of other factors, attempts were made to explore various possibilities to the extent that observation data available can offer. Assuming that the systematic dependence originates from aerosol effects, changes in CRF with respect to aerosol loading were examined using satellite retrievals. Mean changes in shortwave and longwave CRF from very clean to polluted conditions ranged from −192.84 to −296.63 W m−2 and from 18.95 to 46.12 W m−2 over land, respectively, and from −156.12 to −170.30 W m−2 and from 6.76 to 11.67 W m−2 over oceans, respectively.

Full access
Jie Zhang
,
Qianrong Ma
,
Haishan Chen
,
Siwen Zhao
, and
Zhiheng Chen

Abstract

Precipitation is crucial for life and the ecological environment in Asian drylands. This study investigated precipitation trends in Asian drylands in the previous four decades and simulated their possible linkage with snow cover reduction over the Tibetan Plateau. The results show that precipitation has been increasing and contributing to wetter conditions in Asian drylands. The increasing trends can be attributed to the deepened quasi-stationary wave trough around Lake Balkhash and the meridional water vapor flux originating from the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The midlatitude waves and eddy disturbances correspond to the northward upper-level Tibetan Plateau (TP) mode of the South Asian high (TP-SAH) and the Afro-Asian jet with cyclonic rotation. Both SAH and Afro-Asian jet anomalies strengthen the ascending motion and northward water vapor convergence in Asian drylands, and those are favorable for summer precipitation. The anomalous circulations are linked to the following factors. First, the reduced snow cover (SC) over the west TP in the late spring results in decreasing soil moisture and increasing diabatic heating in summer and favors northward extension of TP-SAH and the Afro-Asian jet. Second, the reduced TP SC increases surface temperature over the TP and northeast Asia, which decreases the temperature gradient between the TP and the Indian Ocean, between northeast Asia and East Asia. Decreased temperature gradients are beneficial to the southwest–northeast cyclonic rotation of the Afro-Asian jet and consequently strengthen the southerly wind and northward water vapor flux over the TP and surrounding regions. This study emphasizes important effects of the reducing TP SC on intensifying summer precipitation in Asian drylands.

Open access
Yue Sun
,
Haishan Chen
,
Siguang Zhu
,
Jie Zhang
, and
Jiangfeng Wei

Abstract

Under the background of global warming, the Eurasian warming features evident spatial heterogeneity, and Northeast Asia (NEA) is one of the regions with the most significant summer warming. Based on reanalysis data and the CESM1.2.2 model, we investigated the possible impacts of spring Eurasian snowmelt on recent NEA summer warming and the relevant mechanisms. Results show that increased (decreased) spring snowmelt over eastern Europe to western Siberia (EEWS) is closely linked to NEA summer warming (cooling). Increased spring snowmelt can wet the soil, weakening surface sensible heating to the atmosphere and cooling the atmosphere. The persistent anomalous soil moisture and surface sensible heat induce geopotential height decrease over EEWS and strengthen the eastward-propagating wave train. Furthermore, positive geopotential height anomalies appear in downstream NEA in summer via the adjustment of the atmospheric circulation. Controlled by the anomalous high pressure system, the west part of NEA is affected by the southerly warm advection, while the east is affected by adiabatic warming induced by the dominant descending motion. Meanwhile, decreased cloud and increased incident solar radiation over NEA favor summer land surface warming. Model results suggest that CESM1.2.2 can basically reproduce the positive correlation between NEA summer land surface temperature and EEWS spring snowmelt. With the positive spring snowmelt forcing, the simulated positive soil moisture and negative sensible heat anomalies persist from spring to summer over EEWS. Consequently, negative geopotential height anomalies appear over the snowmelt region while positive anomalies occur around Lake Baikal, resulting in evident NEA land surface warming.

Open access