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Keyan Fang, Deliang Chen, Jinbao Li, and Heikki Seppä

Abstract

Proxy data with large spatial coverage spanning to the preindustrial era not only provide invaluable material to investigate hydroclimate changes in different regions but also enable studies on temporal changes in the teleconnections between these regions. Applying the singular value decomposition (SVD) method to tree-ring-based field reconstructions of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) over monsoonal Asia (MA) and North America (NA) from 1404 to 2005, the dominant covarying pattern between the two regions is identified. This pattern is represented by the teleconnection between the dipole pattern of southern–northern latitudinal MA and the dipole of southwest NA (SWNA)–northwest NA (NWNA), which accounts for 59.6% of the total covariance. It is dominated by an antiphase low MA and SWNA teleconnection, driven by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and is most significant at an interannual time scale. This teleconnection is strengthened (weakened) in periods of increased (decreased) solar forcing and high (low) temperature, which is associated with intensified (weakened) ENSO variability. Additional forcing by SST anomalies in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans appears to be important too.

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Yao Xu, Hailun He, Jinbao Song, Yijun Hou, and Funing Li

Abstract

Buoy-based observations of surface waves during three typhoons in the South China Sea were used to obtain the wave characteristics. With the local wind speeds kept below 35 m s−1, the surface waves over an area with a radius 5 times that of the area in which the maximum sustained wind was found were mainly dominated by wind-wave components, and the wave energy distribution was consistent with fetch-limited waves. Swells dominated the surface waves at the front of and outside the central typhoon region. Next, the dynamics of the typhoon waves were studied numerically using a state-of-the-art third-generation wave model. Wind forcing errors made a negligible contribution to the surface wave results obtained using hindcasting. Near-realistic wind fields were constructed by correcting the idealized wind vortex using in situ observational data. If the different sets of source terms were further considered for the forcing stage of the typhoon, which was defined as the half inertial period before and after the typhoon arrival time, the best model performance had mean relative biases and root-mean-square errors of −0.7% and 0.76 m, respectively, for the significant wave height, and −3.4% and 1.115 s, respectively, for the peak wave period. Different sets of source terms for wind inputs and whitecapping breaking dissipation were also used and the results compared. Finally, twin numerical experiments were performed to investigate the importance of nonlinear wave–wave interactions on the spectrum formed. There was evidence that nonlinear wave–wave interactions efficiently transfer wave energy from high frequencies to low frequencies and prevent double-peak structures occurring in the frequency-based spectrum.

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Zhongshui Zou, Shuiqing Li, Jian Huang, Peiliang Li, Jinbao Song, Jun A. Zhang, and Zhanhong Wan

Abstract

Turbulence over the mobile ocean surface has distinct properties compared to turbulence over land. Thus, findings that are based on the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget and Monin–Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) over land may not be applicable to conditions over ocean partly because of the existence of a wave boundary layer (the lower part of atmospheric boundary layer including effects of surface waves; we used the term “WBL” in this article for convenience), where the total stress can be separated into turbulent stress and wave coherent stress. Here the turbulent stress is defined as the stress generated by wind shear and buoyancy, while the wave coherent stress accounts for the momentum transfer between ocean waves and atmosphere. In this study, applicability of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) budget and the inertial dissipation method (IDM) in the context of the MOST within the WBL are examined. It was found that turbulent transport terms in the TKE budget should not be neglected when calculating the total stress under swell conditions. This was confirmed by observations made on a fixed platform. The results also suggested that turbulent stress, rather than total stress, should be used when applying the MOST within the WBL. By combining the TKE budget and MOST, our study showed that the stress computed by the traditional IDM corresponds to the turbulent stress rather than the total stress. The swell wave coherent stress should be considered when applying the IDM to calculate the stress in the WBL.

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Keyan Fang, Xiaohua Gou, Fahu Chen, Edward Cook, Jinbao Li, Brendan Buckley, and Rosanne D’Arrigo
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Keyan Fang, Xiaohua Gou, Fahu Chen, Edward Cook, Jinbao Li, Brendan Buckley, and Rosanne D’Arrigo

Abstract

A preliminary study of a point-by-point spatial precipitation reconstruction for northwestern (NW) China is explored, based on a tree-ring network of 132 chronologies. Precipitation variations during the past ~200–400 yr (the common reconstruction period is from 1802 to 1990) are reconstructed for 26 stations in NW China from a nationwide 160-station dataset. The authors introduce a “search spatial correlation contour” method to locate candidate tree-ring predictors for the reconstruction data of a given climate station. Calibration and verification results indicate that most precipitation reconstruction models are acceptable, except for a few reconstructions (stations Hetian, Hami, Jiuquan, and Wuwei) with degraded quality. Additionally, the authors compare four spatial precipitation factors in the instrumental records and reconstructions derived from a rotated principal component analysis (RPCA). The northern and southern Xinjiang factors from the instrumental and reconstructed data agree well with each other. However, differences in spatial patterns between the instrumentation and reconstruction data are also found for the other two factors, which probably result from the relatively poor quality of a few stations. Major drought events documented in previous studies—for example, from the 1920s through the 1930s for the eastern part of NW China—are reconstructed in this study.

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Jian Huang, Zhongshui Zou, Qingcun Zeng, Peiliang Li, Jinbao Song, Lin Wu, Jun A. Zhang, Shuiqing Li, and Pak-wai Chan

Abstract

The turbulent structure within the marine atmospheric boundary layer is investigated based on four levels of observations at a fixed marine platform. During and before a cold front, the ocean surface is dominated by wind sea and swell waves, respectively, affording the opportunity to test the theory recently proposed in laboratory experiments or for flat land surfaces. The results reveal that the velocity spectra follow a k -1 law within the intermediate wavenumber (k) range immediately below inertial subrange during the cold front. A logarithmic height dependence of the horizontal velocity variances is also observed above the height of 20 m, while the vertical velocity variances increase with increasing height following a power law of 2/3. These features confirm the Attached Eddy Model and the “top-down model” of turbulence over the ocean surface. However, the behavior of velocity variances under swell conditions is much different from those during the cold front, although a remarkable k -1 law can be observed in the velocity spectra. The quadrant analysis of the momentum flux also shows a significantly different result for the two conditions.

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