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Dandan Zhao, Jinyuan Xin, Chongshui Gong, Xin Wang, Yongjing Ma, and Yining Ma

Abstract

The heavy industrial zone of northeastern Asia is dominated by year-round industrial scattering aerosols that undergo hygroscopic growth in summer. With the rapid economic development over the past decade, aerosol optical depth (AOD) has increased (6.35% yr−1) with an annual-mean AOD of 0.61 ± 0.13. Simultaneously, the aerosol particle size and aerosol scattering have increased, with an annual-mean scattering aerosol optical depth (SAOD) reaching 0.58 ± 0.15. However, considering that the annual AOD/gross domestic product (GDP) per capita decreased, the environmental degradation caused by aerosol emission is expected to reach a turning point based on the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis. In addition, annual-mean radiative forcing at the top, bottom, and interior of the atmospheric column reached −2.35 ± 2.33, −54.16 ± 7.26, and 51.81 ± 7.93 W m−2, respectively. The increase in unit SAOD contributes to the growth in net negative top-of-atmosphere (TOA) forcing and surface (SFC) forcing, and unit absorption aerosol optical depth (AAOD) increases together with atmosphere (ATM) forcing. Moreover, the cooling effect of aerosols on the Earth–atmosphere system showed an increase over the most recent 10 years related to the increase in scattering aerosol from development in the old industrial base. Except for local sources, under the western air masses, the circum–Bohai Sea economic zone was the potential source area of anthropogenic aerosols throughout the year with annual daily mean AOD, single-scattering albedo (SSA), TOA forcing, and SFC forcing values of 0.88, 0.93, −8.08, and −63.05 W m−2, respectively. The Mongolian Plateau was the potential natural dust source area under the northeastern air masses.

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Jinyuan Xin, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, Tianxue Wen, Yinghong Wang, Xingru Li, Yang Sun, Jie Sun, Pucai Wang, Gehui Wang, Xinming Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Tao Song, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, Guiqian Tang, Wenkang Gao, Yuhong Guo, Hongyan Miao, Shili Tian, and Lu Wang

Abstract

Based on a network of field stations belonging to the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Campaign on Atmospheric Aerosol Research network of China (CARE-China) was recently established as the country’s first monitoring network for the study of the spatiotemporal distribution of aerosol physical characteristics, chemical components, and optical properties, as well as aerosol gaseous precursors. The network comprises 36 stations in total and adopts a unified approach in terms of the instrumentation, experimental standards, and data specifications. This ongoing project is intended to provide an integrated research platform to monitor online PM2.5 concentrations, nine-size aerosol concentrations and chemical component distributions, nine-size secondary organic aerosol (SOA) component distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations (including SO2, NOx, CO, O3, and VOCs), and aerosol optical properties. The data will be used to identify the sources of regional aerosols, the relative contributions from nature and anthropogenic emissions, the formation of secondary aerosols, and the effects of aerosol component distributions on aerosol optical properties. The results will reduce the levels of uncertainty involved in the quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on regional climate and environmental changes and ultimately provide insight into how to mitigate anthropogenic aerosol emissions in China. The present paper provides a detailed description of the instrumentation, methodologies, and experimental procedures used across the network, as well as a case study of observations taken from one station and the distribution of main components of aerosol over China during 2012.

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