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Wiebe A. Oost, Christopher W. Fairall, James B. Edson, Stuart D. Smith, Robert J. Anderson, John A.B. Wills, Kristina B. Katsaros, and Janice DeCosmo


Several methods are examined for correction of turbulence and eddy fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer, two of them based on a potential-flow approach initiated by Wyngaard. If the distorting object is cylindrical or if the distance to the sensor is much greater than the size of the body, the undisturbed wind stress can be calculated solely from measurements made by the sensor itself; no auxiliary measurements or lengthy model calculations are needed. A more general potential-flow correction has been developed in which distorting objects of complex shape are represented as a number of ellipsoidal elements.

These models are applied to data from three turbulence anemometers with differing amounts of flow distortion, operated simultaneously in the Humidity Exchange over the Sea (HEXOS) Main Experiment. The results are compared with wind-stress estimates by the inertial-dissipation technique; these are much less sensitive to local flow distortion and are consistent with the corrected eddy correlation results. From these comparisons it is concluded that the commonly used “tilt correction” is not sufficient to correct eddy wind stress for distortion by nearby objects, such as probe supports and neighboring sensors.

Neither potential-flow method is applicable to distortion by larger bodies of a scale comparable to the measuring height, such as the superstructure of the Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN) platform used in HEXOS. Flow distortion has been measured around a model of MPN in a wind tunnel study. The results were used to correct mean winds, but simulation of distortion effects on turbulence levels and wind stress turned out not to be feasible.

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Joseph B. Olson, Jaymes S. Kenyon, Irina Djalalova, Laura Bianco, David D. Turner, Yelena Pichugina, Aditya Choukulkar, Michael D. Toy, John M. Brown, Wayne M. Angevine, Elena Akish, Jian-Wen Bao, Pedro Jimenez, Branko Kosovic, Katherine A. Lundquist, Caroline Draxl, Julie K. Lundquist, Jim McCaa, Katherine McCaffrey, Kathy Lantz, Chuck Long, Jim Wilczak, Robert Banta, Melinda Marquis, Stephanie Redfern, Larry K. Berg, Will Shaw, and Joel Cline


The primary goal of the Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) is to advance the state-of-the-art of wind energy forecasting in complex terrain. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive 18-month field measurement campaign was conducted in the region of the Columbia River basin. The observations were used to diagnose and quantify systematic forecast errors in the operational High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) model during weather events of particular concern to wind energy forecasting. Examples of such events are cold pools, gap flows, thermal troughs/marine pushes, mountain waves, and topographic wakes. WFIP2 model development has focused on the boundary layer and surface-layer schemes, cloud–radiation interaction, the representation of drag associated with subgrid-scale topography, and the representation of wind farms in the HRRR. Additionally, refinements to numerical methods have helped to improve some of the common forecast error modes, especially the high wind speed biases associated with early erosion of mountain–valley cold pools. This study describes the model development and testing undertaken during WFIP2 and demonstrates forecast improvements. Specifically, WFIP2 found that mean absolute errors in rotor-layer wind speed forecasts could be reduced by 5%–20% in winter by improving the turbulent mixing lengths, horizontal diffusion, and gravity wave drag. The model improvements made in WFIP2 are also shown to be applicable to regions outside of complex terrain. Ongoing and future challenges in model development will also be discussed.

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