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John G. Breiland

Abstract

Vertical distributions of ozone observed at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and at Fort Collins, Colorado, on 5, 6 and 7 May 1963 by means of the chemiluminescent ozone-sonde are compared with the structure of the wind and temperature fields during this period. The comparison indicates that during the passage of an upper trough, accompanied by a trough in the conventionally defined middle tropopause, the increase in partial pressure of ozone with altitude begins at a level considerably lower than the level of the tropopause. In general, secondary maxima in the partial pressure of ozone between the level of the main ozone maximum and the level of the middle tropopause at the time of the sounding are associated with tongues, or layers, of polar or middle-latitude stratospheric air injected into tropical air. Tongues of tropical air injected into higher-latitude stratospheric air are associated with a decrease in the partial pressure of ozone. Small-scale features as well as large-scale features of such interpenetrations of polar or middle-latitude stratospheric air and tropical air, as indicated by the temperature field, are substantiated by the ozone soundings.

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John G. Breiland

Abstract

A study is made of a series of daily ozone and temperature soundings taken at Albuquerque, N. Mex., in March 1965. In the lower stratosphere, the layer structure of ozone corresponds rather well to the layer structure of the thermal stability. Significant features of curves representing the vertical distribution of the vertical fractional gradient of partial pressure of ozone can be related to significant features of the curves representing the corresponding vertical distribution of the vertical fractional gradient of potential temperature. Large-scale meridional displacements and interpenetrations of subtropical and polar or mid-latitude stratospheric air masses and their effects on the vertical distribution of ozone are discussed.

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John G. Breiland

Abstract

Results obtained from a diagnostic study of instability lines are presented. The results indicate that an instability line is associated with low-level horizontal convergence brought about primarily by the variation of the isentropic upgliding motion associated with a layer of strong, confluent winds in the lower levels of the troposphere.

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John G. Breiland

Abstract

Variations with time in the vertical distribution of ozone during a period of influx of subtropical air associated with a shortwave ridge and a cold middle tropopause are studied in detail by means of a series of ozone soundings taken at intervals varying from 4–6 hr. In the lower stratosphere, the vertical distributions of the partial pressure of O3 were characterized by secondary maxima and minima that could be followed from sounding to sounding. However, a general decrease in the partial pressure of O3 with time took place at nearly all levels in the lower stratosphere as the ridge advanced over the station. The most significant changes in ozone with time were observed in the layer between altitudes of 9 and 18 km. A pronounced minimum in the partial pressure of O3 persisted at the 18.5-km level throughout the entire period of observations. Such a minimum may he formed when a thin, upper layer of the cold tongue of subtropical air associated with the quasi-permanent, longwave pressure system is left undisturbed as the lower part of the cold tongue is being replaced by ozone-rich polar air associated with a shortwave trough moving through the longwave system. The minimum formed in this way may persist for a long time if not modified by either a significant change in the longwave pressure pattern or by a shortwave disturbance that reaches to an altitude greater than that of the minimum.

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John G. Breiland
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