Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Jong-Hoon Jeong x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Jong-Hoon Jeong, Jiwen Fan, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Zhangshuan Hou

Abstract

Hailstones are a natural hazard that pose a significant threat to property and are responsible for significant economic losses each year in the United States. Detailed understanding of their characteristics is essential to mitigate their impact. Identifying the dynamic and physical factors contributing to hail formation and hailstone sizes is of great importance to weather and climate prediction and policymakers. In this study, we have analyzed the temporal and spatial variabilities of severe hail occurrences over the U.S. southern Great Plains (SGP) states from 2004 to 2016 using two hail datasets: hail reports from the Storm Prediction Center and the newly developed radar-retrieved maximum expected size of hail (MESH). It is found that severe and significant severe hail occurrences have a considerable year-to-year temporal variability in the SGP region. The interannual variabilities have a strong correspondence with sea surface temperature anomalies over the northern Gulf of Mexico and there is no outlier. The year 2016 is identified as an outlier for the correlations with both El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and aerosol loading. The correlations with ENSO and aerosol loading are not statistically robust to inclusion of the outlier 2016. Statistical analysis without the outlier 2016 shows that 1) aerosols that may be mainly from northern Mexico have the largest correlation with hail interannual variability among the three factors and 2) meteorological covariation does not significantly contribute to the high correlation. These analyses warrant further investigations of aerosol impacts on hail occurrence.

Free access
Jong-Hoon Jeong, Dong-In Lee, and Chung-Chieh Wang

Abstract

In this study, an extreme rainfall-producing quasi-stationary mesoscale convective system (MCS) associated with the Changma front in southeastern South Korea is investigated using numerical simulations and sensitivity tests. A record-breaking rainfall amount was recorded in response to repeated initiation of new cells (i.e., back-building) over the same area for several hours. The aim of this study is to realistically simulate and analyze this extreme rainfall event to better understand an impact of the cold pool that leads to the quasi-stationary MCS over southeastern South Korea by using a convection-allowing-resolution (2 km) nonhydrostatic atmospheric model.

The control experiment (CNTL) was successfully performed, yielding the quasi-stationary, back-building MCS at approximately the correct location and time. In the CNTL run, diabatic cooling due to evaporation of raindrops was responsible for the formation of the cold pool. The development of the cold pool was responsible for the deceleration of the propagating convective line, which played a role in the stalling of the MCS over southeastern South Korea. Moreover, new convective cells were repeatedly initiated in the region where an oncoming warm inflow met the leading edge of the cold pool and was uplifted. In an experiment without evaporative cooling (NOEVA), the simulated precipitation pattern was shifted to the northeast because the MCS became nonstationary without the cold pool. The cold pool had an essential role in the stationarity of the MCS, which resulted in extreme rainfall over the Busan metropolitan area.

Full access
Yunhee Kang, Jong-Hoon Jeong, and Dong-In Lee

Abstract

An extreme rainfall-producing linear mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) occurred over the Yellow Sea, Korea, on 13 August 2012, producing 430 mm of rainfall in less than 12 h, causing devastating flash floods and landslides. To understand the causative processes underlying this event, we examined the linear MCSs formation and development mechanisms using observations and cloud-resolving models. The organized linear MCSs produced extreme rainfall at Gunsan in a favorable large-scale environment. The synoptic environment showed the stationary surface front elongating from China to Korea; a southwesterly low-level jet transported the warm, moist air from low latitudes towards the front. In the upper-level synoptic environment, the trough and entrance regions of the upper-level jet were north of the heavy rainfall, promoting the development of convection. The extreme rainfall over the Gunsan area resulted from the back-building mode of the MCSs, in which new convective cells continued to pass over the same area while the entire convective system was nearly stationary. The sea surface temperature (SST) during the extreme rainfall events was abnormally 1°C higher than the 30-year climatological mean, and a local warm pool (>28.5°C) existed where the convective cells were continuously initiated. Cloud-resolving models simulated the low-level convergence, and the latent heat flux was large in the local warm SST field. These induced MCSs formation and development, contributing to a significant rainfall increase over the Yellow Sea. The terrain’s influence on the large rainfall amount in the area was also noted.

Restricted access
Jong-Hoon Jeong, Jiwen Fan, and Cameron R. Homeyer

Abstract

Following on our study of hail for the Southern Great Plains (SGP), we investigated the spatial and temporal hail trends and variabilities for the Northern Great Plains (NGP) and the contributing factors for summers (June–August) focusing on the period of 2004–2016 using two independent hail datasets. Analysis for an extended period (1994–2016) with the hail reports was also conducted to more reliably investigate the contributing factors. Both severe hail (1″ < diameter ≤ 2″) and significant severe hail (SSH; diameter > 2″) were examined and similar results were obtained. The occurrence of hail over the NGP demonstrated a large interannual variability, with a positive slope overall. Spatially, the increase is mainly located in the western part of Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota. We find the three major dynamical factors that most likely contribute to the hail interannual variability in the NGP are the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH), and low-level jet (LLJ). With a thermodynamical variable integrated water vapor transport that is strongly controlled by LLJ, the four factors can explain 78% of the interannual variability in the number of SSH reports. Hail occurrences in the La Niña years are higher than the El Niño years since the jet stream is stronger and NASH extends further into the southeastern United States, thereby strengthening the LLJ and in turn water vapor transport. Interestingly, the important factors impacting hail interannual variability over the NGP are quite different from those for the SGP, except for ENSO.

Restricted access
Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

Abstract

Changes in land surface and aerosol characteristics from urbanization can affect dynamic and microphysical properties of severe storms, thus affecting hazardous weather events resulting from these storms such as hail and tornadoes. We examine the joint and individual effects of urban land and anthropogenic aerosols of Kansas City on a severe convective storm observed during the 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field campaign, focusing on storm evolution, convective intensity, and hail characteristics. The simulations are carried out at the cloud-resolving scale (1 km) using a version of WRF-Chem in which the spectral-bin microphysics (SBM) is coupled with the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC). It is found that the urban land effect of Kansas City initiated a much stronger convective cell and the storm got further intensified when interacting with stronger turbulence induced by the urban land. The urban land effect also changed the storm path by diverting the storm toward the city, mainly resulting from enhanced urban land-induced convergence in the urban area and around the urban–rural boundaries. The joint effect of urban land and anthropogenic aerosols enhances occurrences of both severe hail and significant severe hail by ~20% by enhancing hail formation and growth from riming. Overall the urban land effect on convective intensity and hail is relatively larger than the anthropogenic aerosol effect, but the joint effect is more notable than either of the individual effects, emphasizing the importance of considering both effects in evaluating urbanization effects.

Restricted access