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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

Abstract

Drylines have been identified as relevant synoptic-scale phenomena that frequently occur in several regions around the world. Despite previous works and the experience of local forecasters that recognizes the occurrence of drylines in Argentina and suggests its possible association with convection initiation, knowledge about the mechanisms leading to the genesis of these features is poor. This paper presents the first synoptic climatology of these drylines as well as a first approach to the understanding of the processes leading to their formation. The climatology is based on an automated algorithm for dryline identification applied to reanalysis data. We found that drylines are more frequent between the northern Patagonia plateau and the central Argentinean plains. A composite analysis is performed to analyze the processes leading to the formation of synoptic-scale drylines within this region. It was found that these drylines form in the confluence between a warm and moist air mass driven by a northwesterly flow and drier air flowing east over the northern Patagonia plateau. The dry air originates on top of the Pacific maritime boundary layer and experiences lee subsidence after crossing the Andes range creating an area of dry and warm air that is advected to the east by the westerly synoptic-scale flow, and transported downward during the day due to strong boundary layer turbulence. At the same time, surface heating over the plateau leads to substantial warming of the originally colder dry air behind the dryline, thus reversing the horizontal temperature gradient across the dryline.

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Shigenori Otsuka, Gulanbaier Tuerhong, Ryota Kikuchi, Yoshikazu Kitano, Yusuke Taniguchi, Juan Jose Ruiz, Shinsuke Satoh, Tomoo Ushio, and Takemasa Miyoshi

Abstract

The phased-array weather radar (PAWR) is a new-generation weather radar that can make a 100-m-resolution three-dimensional (3D) volume scan every 30 s for 100 vertical levels, producing ~100 times more data than the conventional parabolic-antenna radar with a volume scan typically made every 5 min for 15 scan levels. This study takes advantage of orders of magnitude more rapid and dense observations by PAWR and explores high-precision nowcasting of 3D evolution at 1–10-km scales up to several minutes, which are compared with conventional horizontal two-dimensional (2D) nowcasting typically at O(100) km scales up to 1–6 h. A new 3D precipitation extrapolation system was designed to enhance a conventional algorithm for dense and rapid PAWR volume scans. Experiments show that the 3D extrapolation successfully captured vertical motions of convective precipitation cores and outperformed 2D nowcasting with both simulated and real PAWR data.

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Arianna Valmassoi, Jan D. Keller, Daryl T. Kleist, Stephen English, Bodo Ahrens, Ivan Bašták Ďurán, Elisabeth Bauernschubert, Michael G. Bosilovich, Masatomo Fujiwara, Hans Hersbach, Lili Lei, Ulrich Löhnert, Nabir Mamnun, Cory R. Martin, Andrew Moore, Deborah Niermann, Juan José Ruiz, and Leonhard Scheck
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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam C. Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the experimental design, execution, education and public outreach, data collection, and initial scientific results from the Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign. RELAMPAGO was a major field campaign conducted in the Córdoba and Mendoza provinces in Argentina and western Rio Grande do Sul State in Brazil in 2018–19 that involved more than 200 scientists and students from the United States, Argentina, and Brazil. This campaign was motivated by the physical processes and societal impacts of deep convection that frequently initiates in this region, often along the complex terrain of the Sierras de Córdoba and Andes, and often grows rapidly upscale into dangerous storms that impact society. Observed storms during the experiment produced copious hail, intense flash flooding, extreme lightning flash rates, and other unusual lightning phenomena, but few tornadoes. The five distinct scientific foci of RELAMPAGO—convection initiation, severe weather, upscale growth, hydrometeorology, and lightning and electrification—are described, as are the deployment strategies to observe physical processes relevant to these foci. The campaign’s international cooperation, forecasting efforts, and mission planning strategies enabled a successful data collection effort. In addition, the legacy of RELAMPAGO in South America, including extensive multinational education, public outreach, and social media data gathering associated with the campaign, is summarized.

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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

Abstract

This article provides an overview of the experimental design, execution, education and public outreach, data collection, and initial scientific results from the Remote sensing of Electrification, Lightning, And Mesoscale/microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign. RELAMPAGO was a major field campaign conducted in Córdoba and Mendoza provinces in Argentina, and western Rio Grande do Sul State in Brazil in 2018-2019 that involved more than 200 scientists and students from the US, Argentina, and Brazil. This campaign was motivated by the physical processes and societal impacts of deep convection that frequently initiates in this region, often along the complex terrain of the Sierras de Córdoba and Andes, and often grows rapidly upscale into dangerous storms that impact society. Observed storms during the experiment produced copious hail, intense flash flooding, extreme lightning flash rates and other unusual lightning phenomena, but few tornadoes. The 5 distinct scientific foci of RELAMPAGO: convection initiation, severe weather, upscale growth, hydrometeorology, and lightning and electrification are described, as are the deployment strategies to observe physical processes relevant to these foci. The campaign’s international cooperation, forecasting efforts, and mission planning strategies enabled a successful data collection effort. In addition, the legacy of RELAMPAGO in South America, including extensive multi-national education, public outreach, and social media data-gathering associated with the campaign, is summarized.

Full access