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  • Author or Editor: K. B. Earnshaw x
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Ting-I. Wang, K. B. Earnshaw, and R. S. Lawrence

Abstract

Path-averaged terminal velocity distribution of raindrops is determined from the temporal covariance function of signals from two vertically spaced linear optical detectors that respond to raindrop-induced amplitude scintillations of a projected laser beam. The known monotonic relationship between drop size and terminal velocity permits the measured velocity distribution to be converted to path-averaged drop-size distribution and, in turn, to rain rate. The large capture area of the measurements over a 200 m path allows drop-size distribution to be measured in short time intervals. We present measurements of path-averaged rain rate and raindrop size distribution made at 42 s intervals. The terminal velocity distribution during a storm that contained a mixture of rain and hail clearly shows the two-component nature of the precipitation.

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R. G. Strauch, D. A. Merritt, K. P. Moran, K. B. Earnshaw, and D. Van De Kamp

Abstract

Remote sensing instrumentation has advanced to the point where serious consideration is being given to a next-generation tropospheric sounding system that uses radars and radiometers to provide profiles of tropospheric variables continuously and automatically. A network of five wind-profiling radars has been constructed in Colorado. This network represents a significant step in the development of a new observing system for operational and research meteorology. The radars and their capabilities and limitations are described.

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K. B. Earnshaw, Ting-I. Wang, R. S. Lawrence, and R. G. Greunke

Abstract

The possibility of identifying weather through the observation of forward scatter of a laser beam has been investigated. Preliminary observations with a prototype instrument suggest that it is possible to distinguish clear air, rain, snow, hail and fog using laser weather identification. After additional measurements are made in various weather conditions, it should be practical to design a simple automatic instrument to provide such information.

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D. C. Hogg, M. T. Decker, F. O. Guiraud, K. B. Earnshaw, D. A. Merritt, K. P. Moran, W. B. Sweezy, R. G. Strauch, E. R. Westwater, and C. G. Little

Abstract

A remote-sensing system for continuously profiling the troposphere is discussed; the prototype Profiler utilizes radio wavelengths, thereby achieving essentially all-weather operation. Designed for unattended operation, the Profiler employs radiometric and Doppler radar technology. Design, construction and calibration of the instruments composing the Profiler system are described along with some of the physics and mathematics upon which their operation is based. Examples of profiles and other variables of meteorological interest are given, and comparisons are made with simultaneous data from colocated operational (NWS) sondes. An algorithm based on climatological statistics of measurements by radiosonde is used in the radiometric retrieval process, but there is no reliance of the products of the Profiler upon any current radiosonde data. The role of the Profiler in mesoscale and synoptic weather forecasting and its relationship to systems employing sounders on satellite platforms are also discussed.

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