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R. Steinacker, C. D. Whiteman, M. Dorninger, B. Pospichal, S. Eisenbach, A. M. Holzer, P. Weihs, E. Mursch-Radlgruber, and K. Baumann

Because sinkholes are an excellent natural laboratory for studying processes leading to the formation, maintenance, and dissipation of temperature inversions, an extended set of meteorological field experiments was conducted in limestone sinkholes of various sizes and shapes in the eastern Alps during the period from 17 October 2001 through 4 June 2002. The experiments were conducted in an area surrounding the Gruenloch Sinkhole, which in earlier years had recorded the lowest surface minimum temperature in Central Europe, −52.6°C. A dense array of surface temperature sensors and three automatic weather stations were operated continuously during the experimental period, and special experiments enhanced with tethersondes and other equipment were conducted from 2 to 4 June 2002. An overview of the experiments is presented and first results are given.

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A. Roiger, J.-L. Thomas, H. Schlager, K. S. Law, J. Kim, A. Schäfler, B. Weinzierl, F. Dahlkötter, I. Krisch, L. Marelle, A. Minikin, J.-C. Raut, A. Reiter, M. Rose, M. Scheibe, P. Stock, R. Baumann, I. Bouarar, C. Clerbaux, M. George, T. Onishi, and J. Flemming

Abstract

Arctic sea ice has decreased dramatically in the past few decades and the Arctic is increasingly open to transit shipping and natural resource extraction. However, large knowledge gaps exist regarding composition and impacts of emissions associated with these activities. Arctic hydrocarbon extraction is currently under development owing to the large oil and gas reserves in the region. Transit shipping through the Arctic as an alternative to the traditional shipping routes is currently underway. These activities are expected to increase emissions of air pollutants and climate forcers (e.g., aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic troposphere significantly in the future. The authors present the first measurements of these activities off the coast of Norway taken in summer 2012 as part of the European Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society (ACCESS) project. The objectives include quantifying the impact that anthropogenic activities will have on regional air pollution and understanding the connections to Arctic climate. Trace gas and aerosol concentrations in pollution plumes were measured, including emissions from different ship types and several offshore extraction facilities. Emissions originating from industrial activities (smelting) on the Kola Peninsula were also sampled. In addition, pollution plumes originating from Siberian biomass burning were probed in order to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In the near future these measurements will be combined with model simulations to quantify the influence of local anthropogenic activities on Arctic composition. Here the authors present the scientific objectives of the ACCESS aircraft experiment and the the meteorological conditions during the campaign, and they highlight first scientific results from the experiment.

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