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  • Author or Editor: K. M. Gierens x
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K. M. Gierens and J. Ström


Numerical simulations of ice cloud formation in the wake of an aircraft flying at cruise altitude have been performed. The engine exhaust has been excluded from the simulations in order to study cloud formation due solely to aerodynamic effects. The ice is formed via homogeneous freezing nucleation of ambient haze droplets in the upwelling limbs of the vortex pair behind the aircraft. Properties of wake ice clouds are compared with properties of contrails obtained with in situ measurements and recent simulations. In particular, the authors find that aerodynamically induced ice clouds are similar in microphysical and radiative respects to contrails that are formed from the nucleation of exhaust particles. This means that under cold and moist conditions contrails as young as 2–5 min may consist of similar amounts of aerodynamically produced and exhaust triggered ice crystals.

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