Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: K. Manning x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Kuan-Man Xu and Steven K. Krueger

Abstract

Diagnostic cloudiness parameterizations in large-scale models are evaluated by using a two-dimensional numerical cumulus ensemble model. The model covers a large horizontal domain (512 km) but resolves individual clouds. This study explores the dependence of diagnostic relations (between cloud amount and a large-scale variable) on cloud regime, horizontal averaging distance, and cloud type for tropical convective cloud regimes. Large-scale variables, including relative humidity, cumulus mass flux, large-scale vertical velocity and surface precipitation rate, are examined.

It is shown that the total cloud amount can be better estimated as the sum of separate estimates of stratiform and convective cloud amounts using different large-scale variables than by an estimate of the total cloud amount using any single large-scale variable. The stratiform cloud amount can best be estimated by using relative humidity. The convective cloud amount can be diagnosed by using cumulus mass flux. Neither set of diagnostic relations depends significantly on the simulated cloud regime or horizontal averaging distance, but other diagnostic relations do show some such dependence. These results are interpreted and their implications for cloudiness parameterization are discussed.

Full access
Yali Luo, Steven K. Krueger, and Kuan-Man Xu

Abstract

This paper is the second in a series in which kilometer-scale-resolving observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and output from the University of California, Los Angeles/Colorado State University cloud-resolving model (CRM) are used to evaluate the single-column model (SCM) version of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System model. Part I demonstrated that kilometer-scale cirrus properties analyzed by applying the SCM’s assumptions about cloud vertical overlap and horizontal homogeneity to its profiles of cloud water/ice mixing ratio, cloud fraction, and snow flux differed from the cloud radar observations while the CRM simulation reproduced most of the observed cirrus properties. The present study evaluates, through a comparison with the CRM, the SCM’s representation of detrainment from deep cumulus and ice-phase microphysics in an effort to better understand the findings of Part I.

This study finds that, although the SCM’s detrainment rate profile averaged over the entire simulation period is comparable to the CRM’s, detrainment in the SCM is comparatively sporadic and vertically localized. Too much detrained ice is sublimated when first detrained. Snow formed from detrained cloud ice falls through too deep of a layer. These aspects of the SCM’s parameterizations may explain many of the differences in the cirrus properties between the SCM and the observations (or between the SCM and the CRM), and suggest several possible improvements for the SCM: 1) allowing multiple coexisting cumulus cloud types as in the original Arakawa–Schubert scheme, 2) prognostically determining the stratiform cloud fraction, and 3) explicitly predicting the snow mixing ratio. These would allow better representation of the detrainment from deep convection, better coupling of the volume of detrained air with cloud fraction, and better representation of snow flux.

Full access
Kuan-Man Xu, Akio Arakawa, and Steven K. Krueger

Abstract

The two-dimensional UCLA cumulus ensemble model (CEM), which covers a large horizontal area with a sufficiently small horizontal grid size, is used in this study. A number of simulation experiments are performed with the CEM to study the macroscopic behavior of cumulus convection under a variety of different large-scale and underlying surface conditions. Specifically, the modulation of cumulus activity by the imposed large-scale processes and the eddy kinetic energy (EKE) budget are investigated in detail.

In all simulations, cumulus convection is rather strongly modulated by large-scale advective processes in spite of the existence of some nonmodulated high-frequency fluctuations. The modulation exhibits some phase delays, however, when the basic wind shear is strong. This is presumably associated with the existence of mesoscale convective organization. The EKE budget analysis shows that the net eddy buoyancy generation rate is nearly zero for a wide range of cumulus ensembles.

Full access
W. Y. Fung, K. S. Lam, Janet Nichol, and Man Sing Wong

Abstract

The aim of this study is to characterize the urban heat island (UHI) intensity in Hong Kong. The first objective is to explore the UHI intensity in Hong Kong by using the mobile transverse and remote sensing techniques. The second objective is to produce a satellite-derived air temperature image by integrating satellite remote sensing with a mobile survey, the methodology involved in making simultaneous ground measurements when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite made an overpass. The average UHI intensity of Hong Kong was about 2°–3.5°C, although a very high value of 12°C UHI was observed on a calm winter night by ASTER. The satellite-derived surface temperature was compared with the in situ measurements. The bias was found to be only about 1.1°C. A good correlation was also found between the in situ surface and air temperature pair of readings at nighttime on 31 January 2007. The linear regression lines of temperatures in urban and suburban areas were then used to convert the satellite-derived surface temperatures into air temperatures. The satellite-derived air temperatures showed a good correlation with temperatures observed by 12 fixed stations. It is possible to derive the nighttime air temperature from the satellite surface temperature on calm and clear winter nights.

Full access
Yali Luo, Steven K. Krueger, Gerald G. Mace, and Kuan-Man Xu

Abstract

Cloud radar data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains site were used to evaluate the properties of cirrus clouds that occurred in a cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation of the 29-day summer 1997 intensive observation period (IOP). The simulation was “forced” by the large-scale advective temperature and water vapor tendencies, horizontal wind velocity, and turbulent surface fluxes observed at the Southern Great Plains site. The large-scale advective condensate tendency was not observed. The correlation of CRM cirrus amount with Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) high cloud amount was 0.70 for the subperiods during which cirrus formation and decay occurred primarily locally, but only 0.30 for the entire IOP. This suggests that neglecting condensate advection has a detrimental impact on the ability of a model (CRM or single-column model) to properly simulate cirrus cloud occurrence.

The occurrence, vertical location, and thickness of cirrus cloud layers, as well as the bulk microphysical properties of thin cirrus cloud layers, were determined from the cloud radar measurements for June, July, and August 1997. The composite characteristics of cirrus clouds derived from this dataset are well suited for evaluating CRMs because of the close correspondence between the timescales and space scales resolved by the cloud radar measurements and by CRMs. The CRM results were sampled at eight grid columns spaced 64 km apart using the same definitions of cirrus and thin cirrus as the cloud radar dataset. The composite characteristics of cirrus clouds obtained from the CRM were then compared to those obtained from the cloud radar.

Compared with the cloud radar observations, the CRM cirrus clouds occur at lower heights and with larger physical thicknesses. The ice water paths in the CRM's thin cirrus clouds are similar to those observed. However, the corresponding cloud-layer-mean ice water contents are significantly less than observed due to the CRM's larger cloud-layer thicknesses. The strong dependence of cirrus microphysical properties on layer-mean temperature and layer thickness as revealed by the observations is reproduced by the CRM. In addition, both the CRM and the observations show that the thin cirrus ice water path during large-scale ascent is only slightly greater than during no ascent or descent.

Full access
S. B. Trier, M. A. LeMone, F. Chen, and K. W. Manning

Abstract

The evolution of the daytime planetary boundary layer (PBL) and its association with warm-season precipitation is strongly impacted by land–atmosphere heat and moisture exchange (hereafter surface exchange). However, substantial uncertainty exists in the parameterization of the surface exchange in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In the current study, the authors examine 0–24-h convection-permitting forecasts with different surface exchange strengths for a 6-day period during the International H2O Project (IHOP_2002). Results indicate sensitivity in the timing of simulated afternoon convection initiation and subsequent precipitation amounts to variations in surface exchange strength. Convection initiation in simulations with weak surface exchange was delayed by 2–3 h compared to simulations with strong surface exchange, and area-averaged total precipitation amounts were less by up to a factor of 2. Over the western high plains (105°–100°W longitude), where deep convection is locally generated, simulations using a formulation for surface exchange that varied with the vegetation category (height) produced area-averaged diurnal cycles of forecasted precipitation amounts in better agreement with observations than simulations that used the current Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF) formulation. Parcel theory is used to diagnose mechanisms by which differences in surface exchange influence convection initiation in individual case studies. The more rapid initiation in simulations with strong surface exchange results from a more rapid removal of negative buoyancy beneath the level of free convection, which arises primarily from greater PBL warming.

Full access
S. B. Trier, F. Chen, K. W. Manning, M. A. LeMone, and C. A. Davis

Abstract

A coupled land surface–atmospheric model that permits grid-resolved deep convection is used to examine linkages between land surface conditions, the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and precipitation during a 12-day warm-season period over the central United States. The period of study (9–21 June 2002) coincided with an extensive dry soil moisture anomaly over the western United States and adjacent high plains and wetter-than-normal soil conditions over parts of the Midwest. A range of possible atmospheric responses to soil wetness is diagnosed from a set of simulations that use land surface models (LSMs) of varying sophistication and initial land surface conditions of varying resolution and specificity to the period of study.

Results suggest that the choice of LSM [Noah or the less sophisticated simple slab soil model (SLAB)] significantly influences the diurnal cycle of near-surface potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio. The initial soil wetness also has a major impact on these thermodynamic variables, particularly during and immediately following the most intense phase of daytime surface heating. The soil wetness influences the daytime PBL evolution through both local and upstream surface evaporation and sensible heat fluxes, and through differences in the mesoscale vertical circulation that develops in response to horizontal gradients of the latter. Resulting differences in late afternoon PBL moist static energy and stability near the PBL top are associated with differences in subsequent late afternoon and evening precipitation in locations where the initial soil wetness differs among simulations. In contrast to the initial soil wetness, soil moisture evolution has negligible effects on the mean regional-scale thermodynamic conditions and precipitation during the 12-day period.

Full access
R. A Anthes, P. A Bernhardt, Y. Chen, L. Cucurull, K. F. Dymond, D. Ector, S. B. Healy, S.-P. Ho, D. C Hunt, Y.-H. Kuo, H. Liu, K. Manning, C. McCormick, T. K. Meehan, W J. Randel, C. Rocken, W S. Schreiner, S. V. Sokolovskiy, S. Syndergaard, D. C. Thompson, K. E. Trenberth, T.-K. Wee, N. L. Yen, and Z Zeng

The radio occultation (RO) technique, which makes use of radio signals transmitted by the global positioning system (GPS) satellites, has emerged as a powerful and relatively inexpensive approach for sounding the global atmosphere with high precision, accuracy, and vertical resolution in all weather and over both land and ocean. On 15 April 2006, the joint Taiwan-U.S. Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC)/Formosa Satellite Mission 3 (COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3, hereafter COSMIC) mission, a constellation of six microsatellites, was launched into a 512-km orbit. After launch the satellites were gradually deployed to their final orbits at 800 km, a process that took about 17 months. During the early weeks of the deployment, the satellites were spaced closely, offering a unique opportunity to verify the high precision of RO measurements. As of September 2007, COSMIC is providing about 2000 RO soundings per day to support the research and operational communities. COSMIC RO data are of better quality than those from the previous missions and penetrate much farther down into the troposphere; 70%–90% of the soundings reach to within 1 km of the surface on a global basis. The data are having a positive impact on operational global weather forecast models.

With the ability to penetrate deep into the lower troposphere using an advanced open-loop tracking technique, the COSMIC RO instruments can observe the structure of the tropical atmospheric boundary layer. The value of RO for climate monitoring and research is demonstrated by the precise and consistent observations between different instruments, platforms, and missions. COSMIC observations are capable of intercalibrating microwave measurements from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on different satellites. Finally, unique and useful observations of the ionosphere are being obtained using the RO receiver and two other instruments on the COSMIC satellites, the tiny ionosphere photometer (TIP) and the tri-band beacon.

Full access
Jhoon Kim, Ukkyo Jeong, Myoung-Hwan Ahn, Jae H. Kim, Rokjin J. Park, Hanlim Lee, Chul Han Song, Yong-Sang Choi, Kwon-Ho Lee, Jung-Moon Yoo, Myeong-Jae Jeong, Seon Ki Park, Kwang-Mog Lee, Chang-Keun Song, Sang-Woo Kim, Young Joon Kim, Si-Wan Kim, Mijin Kim, Sujung Go, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Christopher Chan Miller, Jay Al-Saadi, Ben Veihelmann, Pawan K. Bhartia, Omar Torres, Gonzalo González Abad, David P. Haffner, Dai Ho Ko, Seung Hoon Lee, Jung-Hun Woo, Heesung Chong, Sang Seo Park, Dennis Nicks, Won Jun Choi, Kyung-Jung Moon, Ara Cho, Jongmin Yoon, Sang-kyun Kim, Hyunkee Hong, Kyunghwa Lee, Hana Lee, Seoyoung Lee, Myungje Choi, Pepijn Veefkind, Pieternel F. Levelt, David P. Edwards, Mina Kang, Mijin Eo, Juseon Bak, Kanghyun Baek, Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Jiwon Yang, Junsung Park, Kyung Man Han, Bo-Ram Kim, Hee-Woo Shin, Haklim Choi, Ebony Lee, Jihyo Chong, Yesol Cha, Ja-Ho Koo, Hitoshi Irie, Sachiko Hayashida, Yasko Kasai, Yugo Kanaya, Cheng Liu, Jintai Lin, James H. Crawford, Gregory R. Carmichael, Michael J. Newchurch, Barry L. Lefer, Jay R. Herman, Robert J. Swap, Alexis K. H. Lau, Thomas P. Kurosu, Glen Jaross, Berit Ahlers, Marcel Dobber, C. Thomas McElroy, and Yunsoo Choi

Abstract

The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is scheduled for launch in February 2020 to monitor air quality (AQ) at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution from a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) for the first time. With the development of UV–visible spectrometers at sub-nm spectral resolution and sophisticated retrieval algorithms, estimates of the column amounts of atmospheric pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, and aerosols) can be obtained. To date, all the UV–visible satellite missions monitoring air quality have been in low Earth orbit (LEO), allowing one to two observations per day. With UV–visible instruments on GEO platforms, the diurnal variations of these pollutants can now be determined. Details of the GEMS mission are presented, including instrumentation, scientific algorithms, predicted performance, and applications for air quality forecasts through data assimilation. GEMS will be on board the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite 2 (GEO-KOMPSAT-2) satellite series, which also hosts the Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager 2 (GOCI-2). These three instruments will provide synergistic science products to better understand air quality, meteorology, the long-range transport of air pollutants, emission source distributions, and chemical processes. Faster sampling rates at higher spatial resolution will increase the probability of finding cloud-free pixels, leading to more observations of aerosols and trace gases than is possible from LEO. GEMS will be joined by NASA’s Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and ESA’s Sentinel-4 to form a GEO AQ satellite constellation in early 2020s, coordinated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS).

Free access