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Ailie J. E. Gallant
,
David J. Karoly
, and
Karin L. Gleason

Abstract

The utility of a combined modified climate extremes index (mCEI) is presented for monitoring coherent trends in multiple types of climate extremes across large regions. Its usefulness lies in its ability to distill complex spatiotemporal fields into a simple, flexible nonparametric index.

Two versions of the mCEI are computed that incorporate changes in several annual- or daily-scale temperature-related and moisture-related extremes. Applying data from the contiguous United States, Europe, and Australia detects consistent and statistically significant increases in the spatial prevalence of climate extremes from 1950 to 2012. All three continental-scale regions show increasingly widespread warm annual- and daily-scale minimum and maximum temperature extremes, a decreasing spatial extent of cool annual- and daily-scale minimum and maximum temperature extremes, and increasing areas where the proportion of annual total precipitation falls on heavy-rain days. There were no statistically significant trends toward more widespread, annual-scale drought or moisture surplus in any region.

The dependence of annual extremes on the frequency of daily-scale extremes is highlighted by the strong covariations between annual- and daily-scale extremes in all regions. By the nature of construction of the combined indices, the differences in the trends of the mCEI and daily-scale mCEI (dmCEI) suggest that extremes in more areas are changing primarily because of a shift of temperature and daily rainfall distributions toward warm extremes and heavy-rainfall extremes.

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Karin L. Gleason
,
Jay H. Lawrimore
,
David H. Levinson
,
Thomas R. Karl
, and
David J. Karoly

Abstract

A revised framework is presented that quantifies observed changes in the climate of the contiguous United States through analysis of a revised version of the U.S. Climate Extremes Index (CEI). The CEI is based on a set of climate extremes indicators that measure the fraction of the area of the United States experiencing extremes in monthly mean surface temperature, daily precipitation, and drought (or moisture surplus). In the revised CEI, auxiliary station data, including recently digitized pre-1948 data, are incorporated to extend it further back in time and to improve spatial coverage. The revised CEI is updated for the period from 1910 to the present in near–real time and is calculated for eight separate seasons, or periods.

Results for the annual revised CEI are similar to those from the original CEI. Observations over the past decade continue to support the finding that the area experiencing much above-normal maximum and minimum temperatures in recent years has been on the rise, with infrequent occurrence of much below- normal mean maximum and minimum temperatures. Conversely, extremes in much below-normal mean maximum and minimum temperatures indicate a decline from about 1910 to 1930. An increasing trend in the area experiencing much above-normal proportion of heavy daily precipitation is observed from about 1950 to the present. A period with a much greater-than-normal number of days without precipitation is also noted from about 1910 to the mid-1930s. Warm extremes in mean maximum and minimum temperature observed during the summer and warm seasons show a more pronounced increasing trend since the mid-1970s. Results from the winter season show large variability in extremes and little evidence of a trend. The cold season CEI indicates an increase in extremes since the early 1970s yet has large multidecadal variability.

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Russell S. Vose
,
Scott Applequist
,
Mike Squires
,
Imke Durre
,
Matthew J. Menne
,
Claude N. Williams Jr.
,
Chris Fenimore
,
Karin Gleason
, and
Derek Arndt

Abstract

This paper describes an improved edition of the climate division dataset for the conterminous United States (i.e., version 2). The first improvement is to the input data, which now include additional station networks, quality assurance reviews, and temperature bias adjustments. The second improvement is to the suite of climatic elements, which now includes both maximum and minimum temperatures. The third improvement is to the computational approach, which now employs climatologically aided interpolation to address topographic and network variability. Version 2 exhibits substantial differences from version 1 over the period 1895–2012. For example, divisional averages in version 2 tend to be cooler and wetter, particularly in mountainous areas of the western United States. Division-level trends in temperature and precipitation display greater spatial consistency in version 2. National-scale temperature trends in version 2 are comparable to those in the U.S. Historical Climatology Network whereas version 1 exhibits less warming as a result of historical changes in observing practices. Divisional errors in version 2 are likely less than 0.5°C for temperature and 20 mm for precipitation at the start of the record, falling rapidly thereafter. Overall, these results indicate that version 2 can supersede version 1 in both operational climate monitoring and applied climatic research.

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Mark Svoboda
,
Doug LeComte
,
Mike Hayes
,
Richard Heim
,
Karin Gleason
,
Jim Angel
,
Brad Rippey
,
Rich Tinker
,
Mike Palecki
,
David Stooksbury
,
David Miskus
, and
Scott Stephens

The Drought Monitor was started in spring 1999 in response to a need for improved information about the status of drought across the United States. It serves as an example of interagency cooperation in a time of limited resources. The Drought Monitor process also illustrates the creative use of Internet technologies to disseminate authoritative information about drought and to receive regional and local input that is in turn incorporated into the product. This paper describes the Drought Monitor and the interactive process through which it is created.

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Jay H. Lawrimore
,
Michael S. Halpert
,
Gerald D. Bell
,
Matthew J. Menne
,
Bradfield Lyon
,
Russell C. Schnell
,
Karin L. Gleason
,
David R. Easterling
,
Wasila Thiaw
,
William J. Wrightand
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
David A. Robinson
, and
Lisa Alexander

The global climate in 2000 was again influenced by the long-running Pacific cold episode (La Niña) that began in mid-1998. Consistent with past cold episodes, enhanced convection occurred across the climatologically convective regions of Indonesia and the western equatorial Pacific, while convection was suppressed in the central Pacific. The La Niña was also associated with a well-defined African easterly jet located north of its climatological mean position and low vertical wind shear in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean, both of which contributed to an active North Atlantic hurricane season. Precipitation patterns influenced by typical La Niña conditions included 1) above-average rainfall in southeastern Africa, 2) unusually heavy rainfall in northern and central regions of Australia, 3) enhanced precipitation in the tropical Indian Ocean and western tropical Pacific, 4) little rainfall in the central tropical Pacific, 5) below-normal precipitation over equatorial east Africa, and 6) drier-than-normal conditions along the Gulf coast of the United States.

Although no hurricanes made landfall in the United States in 2000, another active North Atlantic hurricane season featured 14 named storms, 8 of which became hurricanes, with 3 growing to major hurricane strength. All of the named storms over the North Atlantic formed during the August–October period with the first hurricane of the season, Hurricane Alberto, notable as the third-longest-lived tropical system since reliable records began in 1945. The primary human loss during the 2000 season occurred in Central America, where Hurricane Gordon killed 19 in Guatemala, and Hurricane Keith killed 19 in Belize and caused $200 million dollars of damage.

Other regional events included 1) record warm January–October temperatures followed by record cold November–December temperatures in the United States, 2) extreme drought and widespread wildfires in the southern and western Unites States, 3) continued long-term drought in the Hawaiian Islands throughout the year with record 24-h rainfall totals in November, 4) deadly storms and flooding in western Europe in October, 5) a summer heat wave and drought in southern Europe, 6) monsoon flooding in parts of Southeast Asia and India, 7) extreme winter conditions in Mongolia, 8) extreme long-term drought in the Middle East and Southwest Asia, and 9) severe flooding in southern Africa.

Global mean temperatures remained much above average in 2000. The average land and ocean temperature was 0.39°C above the 1880–1999 long-term mean, continuing a trend to warmer-than-average temperatures that made the 1990s the warmest decade on record. While the persistence of La Niña conditions in 2000 was associated with somewhat cooler temperatures in the Tropics, temperatures in the extratropics remained near record levels. Land surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere were notably warmer than normal, with annually averaged anomalies greater than 2°C in parts of Alaska, Canada, Asia, and northern Europe.

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Peter Bissolli
,
Catherine Ganter
,
Ademe Mekonnen
,
Ahira Sánchez-Lugo
,
Zhiwei Zhu
,
A. Abida
,
W. Agyakwah
,
Laura S. Aldeco
,
Eric J. Alfaro
,
Teddy Allen
,
Lincoln M. Alves
,
Jorge A. Amador
,
B. Andrade
,
P. Asgarzadeh
,
Grinia Avalos
,
Julian Baez
,
M. Yu. Bardin
,
E. Bekele
,
Renato Bertalanic
,
Oliver Bochníček
,
Brandon Bukunt
,
Blanca Calderón
,
Jayaka D. Campbell
,
Elise Chandler
,
Candice S Charlton
,
Vincent Y. S. Cheng
,
Leonardo A. Clarke
,
Kris Correa
,
Catalina R. Cortés Salazar
,
Felipe Costa
,
Lenka Crhová
,
Ana Paula Cunha
,
Mesut Demircan
,
K. R. Dhurmea
,
Diana A. Domínguez
,
Dashkhuu Dulamsuren
,
M. ElKharrim
,
Jhan-Carlo Espinoza
,
A. Fazl-Kezemi
,
Nava Fedaeff
,
Chris Fenimore
,
Steven Fuhrman
,
Karin Gleason
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
Samson Hagos
,
Mizuki Hanafusa
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
John Kennedy
,
Sverker Hellström
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
I. A. Ijampy
,
Gyo Soon Im
,
G. Jumaux
,
K. Kabidi
,
Kenneth Kerr
,
Yelena Khalatyan
,
Valentina Khan
,
Mai Van Khiem
,
Tobias Koch
,
Gerbrand Koren
,
Natalia N. Korshunova
,
A. C. Kruger
,
Mónika Lakatos
,
Jostein Mamen
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
,
Mark A. Lander
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
Tsz-Cheung Lee
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Xuefeng Liu
,
Rui Lu
,
José A. Marengo
,
Mohammadi Marjan
,
Ana E. Martínez
,
Charlotte McBride
,
Mirek Mietus
,
Noelia Misevicius
,
Aurel Moise
,
Jorge Molina-Carpio
,
Natali Mora
,
Awatif E. Mostafa
,
O. Ndiaye
,
Juan J. Nieto
,
Kristin Olafsdottir
,
Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez
,
David Phillips
,
Amos Porat
,
Esteban Rodriguez Guisado
,
Madhavan Rajeevan
,
Andrea M. Ramos
,
Cristina Recalde Coronel
,
Alejandra J. Reyes Kohler
,
M. Robjhon
,
Josyane Ronchail
,
Roberto Salinas
,
Hirotaka Sato
,
Hitoshi Sato
,
Amal Sayouri
,
Serhat Sensoy
,
Amsari Mudzakir Setiawan
,
F. Sima
,
Adam Smith
,
Matthieu Sorel
,
Sandra Spillane
,
Jacqueline M. Spence
,
O. P. Sreejith
,
A. K. Srivastava
,
Tannecia S. Stephenson
,
Kiyotoshi Takahashi
,
Michael A. Taylor
,
Wassila M. Thiaw
,
Skie Tobin
,
Lidia Trescilo
,
Adrian R. Trotman
,
Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck
,
A. Vazifeh
,
Shunya Wakamatsu
,
M. F. Zaheer
,
F. Zeng
, and
Peiqun Zhang
Free access
Tim Li
,
Abdallah Abida
,
Laura S. Aldeco
,
Eric J. Alfaro
,
Lincoln M. Alves
,
Jorge A. Amador
,
B. Andrade
,
Julian Baez
,
M. Yu. Bardin
,
Endalkachew Bekele
,
Eric Broedel
,
Brandon Bukunt
,
Blanca Calderón
,
Jayaka D. Campbell
,
Diego A. Campos Diaz
,
Gilma Carvajal
,
Elise Chandler
,
Vincent. Y. S. Cheng
,
Chulwoon Choi
,
Leonardo A. Clarke
,
Kris Correa
,
Felipe Costa
,
A. P. Cunha
,
Mesut Demircan
,
R. Dhurmea
,
Eliecer A. Díaz
,
M. ElKharrim
,
Bantwale D. Enyew
,
Jhan C. Espinoza
,
Amin Fazl-Kazem
,
Nava Fedaeff
,
Z. Feng
,
Chris Fenimore
,
S. D. Francis
,
Karin Gleason
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
Indra Gustari
,
S. Hagos
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
Rafael Hernández
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
J. A. Ijampy
,
Annie C. Joseph
,
Guillaume Jumaux
,
Khadija Kabidi
,
Johannes W. Kaiser
,
Pierre-Honore Kamsu-Tamo
,
John Kennedy
,
Valentina Khan
,
Mai Van Khiem
,
Khatuna Kokosadze
,
Natalia N. Korshunova
,
Andries C. Kruger
,
Nato Kutaladze
,
L. Labbé
,
Mónika Lakatos
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
,
Mark A. Lander
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
T. C. Lee
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Andrew D. Magee
,
Jostein Mamen
,
José A. Marengo
,
Dora Marín
,
Charlotte McBride
,
Lia Megrelidze
,
Noelia Misevicius
,
Y. Mochizuki
,
Aurel Moise
,
Jorge Molina-Carpio
,
Natali Mora
,
Awatif E. Mostafa
,
uan José Nieto
,
Lamjav Oyunjargal
,
Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez
,
Maria Asuncion Pastor Saavedra
,
Uwe Pfeifroth
,
David Phillips
,
Madhavan Rajeevan
,
Andrea M. Ramos
,
Jayashree V. Revadekar
,
Miliaritiana Robjhon
,
Ernesto Rodriguez Camino
,
Esteban Rodriguez Guisado
,
Josyane Ronchail
,
Benjamin Rösner
,
Roberto Salinas
,
Amal Sayouri
,
Carl J. Schreck III
,
Serhat Sensoy
,
A. Shimpo
,
Fatou Sima
,
Adam Smith
,
Jacqueline Spence
,
Sandra Spillane
,
Arne Spitzer
,
A. K. Srivastava
,
José L. Stella
,
Kimberly A. Stephenson
,
Tannecia S. Stephenson
,
Michael A. Taylor
,
Wassila Thiaw
,
Skie Tobin
,
Dennis Todey
,
Katja Trachte
,
Adrian R. Trotman
,
Gerard van der Schrier
,
Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck
,
Ahad Vazifeh
,
José Vicencio Veloso
,
Wei Wang
,
Fei Xin
,
Peiqun Zhang
,
Zhiwei Zhu
, and
Jonas Zucule
Free access
Peter Bissolli
,
Catherine Ganter
,
Tim Li
,
Ademe Mekonnen
,
Ahira Sánchez-Lugo
,
Eric J. Alfaro
,
Lincoln M. Alves
,
Jorge A. Amador
,
B. Andrade
,
Francisco Argeñalso
,
P. Asgarzadeh
,
Julian Baez
,
Reuben Barakiza
,
M. Yu. Bardin
,
Mikhail Bardin
,
Oliver Bochníček
,
Brandon Bukunt
,
Blanca Calderón
,
Jayaka D. Campbell
,
Elise Chandler
,
Ladislaus Chang’a
,
Vincent Y. S. Cheng
,
Leonardo A. Clarke
,
Kris Correa
,
Catalina Cortés
,
Felipe Costa
,
A.P.M.A. Cunha
,
Mesut Demircan
,
K. R. Dhurmea
,
A. Diawara
,
Sarah Diouf
,
Dashkhuu Dulamsuren
,
M. ElKharrim
,
Jhan-Carlo Espinoza
,
A. Fazl-Kazem
,
Chris Fenimore
,
Steven Fuhrman
,
Karin Gleason
,
Charles “Chip” P. Guard
,
Samson Hagos
,
Mizuki Hanafusa
,
H. R. Hasannezhad
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
Hugo G. Hidalgo
,
J. A. Ijampy
,
Gyo Soon Im
,
Annie C. Joseph
,
G. Jumaux
,
K. R. Kabidi
,
P-H. Kamsu-Tamo
,
John Kennedy
,
Valentina Khan
,
Mai Van Khiem
,
Philemon King’uza
,
Natalia N. Korshunova
,
A. C. Kruger
,
Hoang Phuc Lam
,
Mark A. Lander
,
Waldo Lavado-Casimiro
,
Tsz-Cheung Lee
,
Kinson H. Y. Leung
,
Gregor Macara
,
Jostein Mamen
,
José A. Marengo
,
Charlotte McBride
,
Noelia Misevicius
,
Aurel Moise
,
Jorge Molina-Carpio
,
Natali Mora
,
Awatif E. Mostafa
,
Habiba Mtongori
,
Charles Mutai
,
O. Ndiaye
,
Juan José Nieto
,
Latifa Nyembo
,
Patricia Nying’uro
,
Xiao Pan
,
Reynaldo Pascual Ramírez
,
David Phillips
,
Brad Pugh
,
Madhavan Rajeevan
,
M. L. Rakotonirina
,
Andrea M. Ramos
,
M. Robjhon
,
Camino Rodriguez
,
Guisado Rodriguez
,
Josyane Ronchail
,
Benjamin Rösner
,
Roberto Salinas
,
Hirotaka Sato
,
Hitoshi Sato
,
Amal Sayouri
,
Joseph Sebaziga
,
Serhat Sensoy
,
Sandra Spillane
,
Katja Trachte
,
Gerard van der Schrier
,
F. Sima
,
Adam Smith
,
Jacqueline M. Spence
,
O. P. Sreejith
,
A. K. Srivastava
,
José L. Stella
,
Kimberly A. Stephenson
,
Tannecia S. Stephenson
,
S. Supari
,
Sahar Tajbakhsh-Mosalman
,
Gerard Tamar
,
Michael A. Taylor
,
Asaminew Teshome
,
Wassila M. Thiaw
,
Skie Tobin
,
Adrian R. Trotman
,
Cedric J. Van Meerbeeck
,
A. Vazifeh
,
Shunya Wakamatsu
,
Wei Wang
,
Fei Xin
,
F. Zeng
,
Peiqun Zhang
, and
Zhiwei Zhu
Free access