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Kevin G. Doty and Richard G. Semonin


To investigate the hypothesis that dust storms enhanced the calcium concentrations in precipitation in the mid-1950s, two case studies were performed for major dust events in the southern Plains of the United States during March and April of 1981. Forward trajectories were calculated from source areas of blowing dust and then compared with hourly radar summaries to see if the advected dust cloud intercepted precipitation over sites of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Four sites met these criteria between the two case studies and exhibited extremely high calcium concentration and deposition values for the study period.

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Kevin G. Doty and Donald J. Perkey


A mesoscale primitive equation model is used to create a 36-h simulation of the three-dimensional wind field of an intense maritime extratropical cyclone. The control experiment uses the simulated wind field every 15 min in a trajectory model to calculate back trajectories from various horizontal and vertical positions of interest relative to synoptic features of the storm. The latter trajectories are compared to trajectories that were calculated with the simulated wind data degraded in time to 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, and 12 h.

Various error statistics reveal significant deterioration in trajectory accuracy between trajectories calculated with 1- and 3-h data frequencies. Trajectories calculated with 15-min, 30-min, and 1-h data frequencies yielded similar results, while trajectories calculated with data time frequencies 3 h and greater yielded results with unacceptably large errors.

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