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Bingyi Wu
,
Dörthe Handorf
,
Klaus Dethloff
,
Annette Rinke
, and
Aixue Hu

Abstract

Using NCEP–NCAR reanalysis and Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis (JRA-25) winter daily (1 December–28 February) data for the period 1979–2012, this paper reveals the leading pattern of winter daily 850-hPa wind variability over northern Eurasia from a dynamic perspective. The results show that the leading pattern accounts for 18% of the total anomalous kinetic energy and consists of two subpatterns: the dipole and the tripole wind patterns. The dipole wind pattern does not exhibit any apparent trend. The tripole wind pattern, however, has displayed significant trends since the late 1980s. The negative phase of the tripole wind pattern corresponds to an anomalous anticyclone over northern Eurasia during winter, as well as two anomalous cyclones occurring over southern Europe and in the mid- to high latitudes of East Asia. These anomalous cyclones in turn lead to enhanced winter precipitation in these two regions, as well as negative surface temperature anomalies over the mid- to high latitudes of Asia. The intensity of the tripole wind pattern and the frequency of its extreme negative phase are significantly correlated with autumn Arctic sea ice anomalies. Simulation experiments further demonstrate that the winter atmospheric response to Arctic sea ice decrease is dynamically consistent with the observed trend in the tripole wind pattern over the past 24 winters, which is one of the causes of the observed declining winter surface air temperature trend over Central and East Asia. The results of this study also imply that East Asia may experience more frequent and/or intense winter extreme weather events in association with the loss of Arctic sea ice.

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Mario Sempf
,
Klaus Dethloff
,
Dörthe Handorf
, and
Michael V. Kurgansky

Abstract

From a dynamical systems theory perspective, the mechanisms of atmospheric regime behavior in a barotropic model, a pseudobarotropic model, and a baroclinic three-level model, where all of them show quite realistic regimes, are unveiled. Along with this, the role played by multiple equilibria for the emergence of regimes in barotropic models is critically reexamined.

In the barotropic model, a sequence of bifurcations is observed, which leads to the merging of coexisting attractors and results in two pronounced regimes corresponding to high- and low-index flow. The pseudobarotropic model is constructed from the three-level model by introducing a strong internal friction between the levels and switching off the interfacial diabatic forcing, and it has essentially the same bifurcation properties and regimes as the truly barotropic model. A continuous metamorphosis between the pseudobarotropic and the original baroclinic three-level model is accomplished by a linear interpolation of parameters and forcing fields between these two models. Both local and global bifurcations occurring during this transition to baroclinicity are analyzed in detail, yielding two main results. First, almost all of the multiple steady states of the pseudobarotropic model owe their existence merely to the fact that the surface friction has generally to be chosen unphysically weak in barotropic models in order to obtain chaotic behavior. Second, the circulation regimes in both the pseudobarotropic model and the baroclinic three-level model are proven to emerge from the unification of multiple attractors, which coexist at intermediate strength of baroclinicity and correspond to low- or high-index flow configurations, respectively.

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Mario Sempf
,
Klaus Dethloff
,
Dörthe Handorf
, and
Michael V. Kurgansky

Abstract

Dynamical mechanisms of atmospheric regime behavior are investigated in the context of a quasigeostrophic three-level T21 model of the wintertime atmospheric circulation over the Northern Hemisphere. The model, driven by realistic orography and using a thermal forcing determined by a newly developed tuning procedure, is shown to possess a reasonable climatology and to simulate the Arctic Oscillation quite realistically. It exhibits pronounced internally generated interannual and decadal variability and, in particular, circulation regimes that agree fairly well with observed ones. Two known hypotheses about the origin of regime behavior, as it occurs in the model herein are addressed: (i) multiple equilibria and (ii) chaotic itinerancy between attractor ruins. The first hypothesis is falsified at very high probability, while the second is likely to be true.

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Dörthe Handorf
,
Klaus Dethloff
,
Andrew G. Marshall
, and
Amanda Lynch

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of Northern Hemisphere climate regime variability for three different time slices, simulated by the Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM). The three time slices are composed of present-day conditions, the mid-Holocene, and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Climate regimes have been determined by analyzing the structure of a spherical probability density function in a low-dimensional state space spanned by the three leading empirical orthogonal functions. This study confirms the ability of the FOAM medium-resolution climate model to reproduce low-frequency climate variability in the form of regime-like behavior. Three to four regimes have been detected for each time slice. Compared with present-day conditions, new climate regimes appeared for the LGM. For the mid-Holocene, which had slightly different boundary conditions and external forcings than the present-day simulation, the frequency of occurrence of the regimes was altered while only slight changes were found in the structure of some regimes.

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Manfred Wendisch
,
Andreas Macke
,
André Ehrlich
,
Christof Lüpkes
,
Mario Mech
,
Dmitry Chechin
,
Klaus Dethloff
,
Carola Barrientos Velasco
,
Heiko Bozem
,
Marlen Brückner
,
Hans-Christian Clemen
,
Susanne Crewell
,
Tobias Donth
,
Regis Dupuy
,
Kerstin Ebell
,
Ulrike Egerer
,
Ronny Engelmann
,
Christa Engler
,
Oliver Eppers
,
Martin Gehrmann
,
Xianda Gong
,
Matthias Gottschalk
,
Christophe Gourbeyre
,
Hannes Griesche
,
Jörg Hartmann
,
Markus Hartmann
,
Bernd Heinold
,
Andreas Herber
,
Hartmut Herrmann
,
Georg Heygster
,
Peter Hoor
,
Soheila Jafariserajehlou
,
Evelyn Jäkel
,
Emma Järvinen
,
Olivier Jourdan
,
Udo Kästner
,
Simonas Kecorius
,
Erlend M. Knudsen
,
Franziska Köllner
,
Jan Kretzschmar
,
Luca Lelli
,
Delphine Leroy
,
Marion Maturilli
,
Linlu Mei
,
Stephan Mertes
,
Guillaume Mioche
,
Roland Neuber
,
Marcel Nicolaus
,
Tatiana Nomokonova
,
Justus Notholt
,
Mathias Palm
,
Manuela van Pinxteren
,
Johannes Quaas
,
Philipp Richter
,
Elena Ruiz-Donoso
,
Michael Schäfer
,
Katja Schmieder
,
Martin Schnaiter
,
Johannes Schneider
,
Alfons Schwarzenböck
,
Patric Seifert
,
Matthew D. Shupe
,
Holger Siebert
,
Gunnar Spreen
,
Johannes Stapf
,
Frank Stratmann
,
Teresa Vogl
,
André Welti
,
Heike Wex
,
Alfred Wiedensohler
,
Marco Zanatta
, and
Sebastian Zeppenfeld

Abstract

Clouds play an important role in Arctic amplification. This term represents the recently observed enhanced warming of the Arctic relative to the global increase of near-surface air temperature. However, there are still important knowledge gaps regarding the interplay between Arctic clouds and aerosol particles, and surface properties, as well as turbulent and radiative fluxes that inhibit accurate model simulations of clouds in the Arctic climate system. In an attempt to resolve this so-called Arctic cloud puzzle, two comprehensive and closely coordinated field studies were conducted: the Arctic Cloud Observations Using Airborne Measurements during Polar Day (ACLOUD) aircraft campaign and the Physical Feedbacks of Arctic Boundary Layer, Sea Ice, Cloud and Aerosol (PASCAL) ice breaker expedition. Both observational studies were performed in the framework of the German Arctic Amplification: Climate Relevant Atmospheric and Surface Processes, and Feedback Mechanisms (AC) project. They took place in the vicinity of Svalbard, Norway, in May and June 2017. ACLOUD and PASCAL explored four pieces of the Arctic cloud puzzle: cloud properties, aerosol impact on clouds, atmospheric radiation, and turbulent dynamical processes. The two instrumented Polar 5 and Polar 6 aircraft; the icebreaker Research Vessel (R/V) Polarstern; an ice floe camp including an instrumented tethered balloon; and the permanent ground-based measurement station at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, were employed to observe Arctic low- and mid-level mixed-phase clouds and to investigate related atmospheric and surface processes. The Polar 5 aircraft served as a remote sensing observatory examining the clouds from above by downward-looking sensors; the Polar 6 aircraft operated as a flying in situ measurement laboratory sampling inside and below the clouds. Most of the collocated Polar 5/6 flights were conducted either above the R/V Polarstern or over the Ny-Ålesund station, both of which monitored the clouds from below using similar but upward-looking remote sensing techniques as the Polar 5 aircraft. Several of the flights were carried out underneath collocated satellite tracks. The paper motivates the scientific objectives of the ACLOUD/PASCAL observations and describes the measured quantities, retrieved parameters, and the applied complementary instrumentation. Furthermore, it discusses selected measurement results and poses critical research questions to be answered in future papers analyzing the data from the two field campaigns.

Open access