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J. R. Carpenter
and
M.-L. Timmermans

Abstract

The diffusive (or semiconvection) regime of double-diffusive convection (DDC) is widespread in the polar oceans, generating “staircases” consisting of high-gradient interfaces of temperature and salinity separated by convectively mixed layers. Using two-dimensional direct numerical simulations, support is provided for a previous theory that rotation can influence DDC heat fluxes when the thickness of the thermal interface sufficiently exceeds that of the Ekman layer. This study finds, therefore, that the earth’s rotation places constraints on small-scale vertical heat fluxes through double-diffusive layers. This leads to departures from laboratory-based parameterizations that can significantly change estimates of Arctic Ocean heat fluxes in certain regions, although most of the upper Arctic Ocean thermocline is not expected to be dominated by rotation.

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THOMAS H. CARPENTER
,
RONALD L. HOLLE
, and
JOSE J. FERNANDEZ-PARTAGAS

Abstract

To examine the hypothesis of a worldwide relation between some lunar periods and tropical disturbances, we collected first-formation dates for 1,013 hurricanes and typhoons and 2,418 tropical storms in both hemispheres. Using the superposed epoch method, we found a lunar synodic cycle (29.53 days) in North Atlantic hurricane and northwest Pacific typhoon formation dates. About 20 percent more hurricanes and typhoons formed near new and full moon than near the quarters during a 78-yr period, showing a stronger peak at new moon than at full moon. Statistically, the existence of an effect dependent on the lunar synodic cycle is supported by a significance level of 7 percent on unsmoothed data from an analysis of variance for categorical data.

During the same 78 yr. North Atlantic tropical storms that did not later become hurricanes tended to form near the lunar quarters. Several other categories of tropical storms were not clearly related to the synodic month. Severe tropical storms in two portions of the Indian Ocean over 75 yr formed more often several days after syzygy and quadrature, but this and other severe tropical storm results lack definition, probably due to poor data.

Theoretical calculations of the lunar-solar gravitational tide showed that the anomalistic lunar cycle affects only the amplitude and not the timing of extrema. No marked anomalistic or latitude components in hurricane formation were found.

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Kimberly L. Elmore
,
F. Wesley Wilson Jr.
, and
Michael J. Carpenter

Abstract

On occasion, digital data gathered during field projects suffers damage due to hardware problems. If no more than half the data are damaged and if the damaged data are randomly distributed in space or time, there is a high probability that the damage can be isolated and repaired using the algorithm described in this paper. During subsequent analysis, some data from the NCAR CP4 Doppler radar were found to be damaged and initially seemed to be lost. Later, the nature of the problem was found and a general algorithm was developed that identifies outliers, which can then be corrected. This algorithm uses the fact that the second derivative of the damaged data with respect to (in this case) radial distance is relatively small. The algorithm can be applied to any similar data. Such data can be closely approximated by a first order, least-squares regression line if the regression line is not applied over too long an interval. This algorithm is especially robust because the length of the regression fit is adaptively chosen, determined by the residuals, such that the slope of the regression line approximates the first radial derivative. The outliers are then marked as candidates for correction, allowing data recovery. This method is not limited to radar data; it may be applied to any data with damage as outlined above. Examples of damaged and corrected data sets are shown and the limitations of this method are discussed as are general applications to other data.

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L. L. Pan
,
E. L. Atlas
,
R. J. Salawitch
,
S. B. Honomichl
,
J. F. Bresch
,
W. J. Randel
,
E. C. Apel
,
R. S. Hornbrook
,
A. J. Weinheimer
,
D. C. Anderson
,
S. J. Andrews
,
S. Baidar
,
S. P. Beaton
,
T. L. Campos
,
L. J. Carpenter
,
D. Chen
,
B. Dix
,
V. Donets
,
S. R. Hall
,
T. F. Hanisco
,
C. R. Homeyer
,
L. G. Huey
,
J. B. Jensen
,
L. Kaser
,
D. E. Kinnison
,
T. K. Koenig
,
J.-F. Lamarque
,
C. Liu
,
J. Luo
,
Z. J. Luo
,
D. D. Montzka
,
J. M. Nicely
,
R. B. Pierce
,
D. D. Riemer
,
T. Robinson
,
P. Romashkin
,
A. Saiz-Lopez
,
S. Schauffler
,
O. Shieh
,
M. H. Stell
,
K. Ullmann
,
G. Vaughan
,
R. Volkamer
, and
G. Wolfe

Abstract

The Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) experiment was conducted from Guam (13.5°N, 144.8°E) during January–February 2014. Using the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V research aircraft, the experiment investigated the photochemical environment over the tropical western Pacific (TWP) warm pool, a region of massive deep convection and the major pathway for air to enter the stratosphere during Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter. The new observations provide a wealth of information for quantifying the influence of convection on the vertical distributions of active species. The airborne in situ measurements up to 15-km altitude fill a significant gap by characterizing the abundance and altitude variation of a wide suite of trace gases. These measurements, together with observations of dynamical and microphysical parameters, provide significant new data for constraining and evaluating global chemistry–climate models. Measurements include precursor and product gas species of reactive halogen compounds that impact ozone in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. High-accuracy, in situ measurements of ozone obtained during CONTRAST quantify ozone concentration profiles in the upper troposphere, where previous observations from balloonborne ozonesondes were often near or below the limit of detection. CONTRAST was one of the three coordinated experiments to observe the TWP during January–February 2014. Together, CONTRAST, Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), and Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST), using complementary capabilities of the three aircraft platforms as well as ground-based instrumentation, provide a comprehensive quantification of the regional distribution and vertical structure of natural and pollutant trace gases in the TWP during NH winter, from the oceanic boundary to the lower stratosphere.

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N. R. P. Harris
,
L. J. Carpenter
,
J. D. Lee
,
G. Vaughan
,
M. T. Filus
,
R. L. Jones
,
B. OuYang
,
J. A. Pyle
,
A. D. Robinson
,
S. J. Andrews
,
A. C. Lewis
,
J. Minaeian
,
A. Vaughan
,
J. R. Dorsey
,
M. W. Gallagher
,
M. Le Breton
,
R. Newton
,
C. J. Percival
,
H. M. A. Ricketts
,
S. J.-B. Bauguitte
,
G. J. Nott
,
A. Wellpott
,
M. J. Ashfold
,
J. Flemming
,
R. Butler
,
P. I. Palmer
,
P. H. Kaye
,
C. Stopford
,
C. Chemel
,
H. Boesch
,
N. Humpage
,
A. Vick
,
A. R. MacKenzie
,
R. Hyde
,
P. Angelov
,
E. Meneguz
, and
A. J. Manning

Abstract

The main field activities of the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign took place in the west Pacific during January–February 2014. The field campaign was based in Guam (13.5°N, 144.8°E), using the U.K. Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 atmospheric research aircraft, and was coordinated with the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) project with an unmanned Global Hawk and the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign with a Gulfstream V aircraft. Together, the three aircraft were able to make detailed measurements of atmospheric structure and composition from the ocean surface to 20 km. These measurements are providing new information about the processes influencing halogen and ozone levels in the tropical west Pacific, as well as the importance of trace-gas transport in convection for the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The FAAM aircraft made a total of 25 flights in the region between 1°S and 14°N and 130° and 155°E. It was used to sample at altitudes below 8 km, with much of the time spent in the marine boundary layer. It measured a range of chemical species and sampled extensively within the region of main inflow into the strong west Pacific convection. The CAST team also made ground-based measurements of a number of species (including daily ozonesondes) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea (2.1°S, 147.4°E). This article presents an overview of the CAST project, focusing on the design and operation of the west Pacific experiment. It additionally discusses some new developments in CAST, including flights of new instruments on board the Global Hawk in February–March 2015.

Open access