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  • Author or Editor: L. R. Blaine x
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J. D. Spinhirne
,
M. G. Strange
, and
L. R. Blaine

Abstract

A sun photometer which operates at five wavelengths in the near infrared between 1.0 and 4.0 μm has been developed. The instrument is a manually operated, fitter wheel design and has principal applications for atmospheric aerosol studies. The wavelength filters were selected at bands with minimal gaseous absorption. A modified Langley analysis which accounts for residual gaseous absorption is employed for the instrument calibration. Calibration and stability results for the instrument are presented.

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Robert A. Weisman
,
Keith G. McGregor
,
David R. Novak
,
Jason L. Selzler
,
Michael L. Spinar
,
Blaine C. Thomas
, and
Philip N. Schumacher

Abstract

This paper is the first of two papers that examines the organization of the precipitation field in central U.S. cold-season cyclones involving inverted troughs. The first portion of the study examines the varying precipitation distribution that occurred during a 6-yr synoptic climatology of inverted trough cases. The definition of inverted trough cases has been expanded from the groundbreaking work by Keshishian et al. by 1) not requiring a closed cyclonic isobar along the frontal wave along the conventional surface front and 2) not requiring a surface thermal gradient to be present along the inverted trough. Only 8.5% of the expanded dataset produced the precipitation primarily occurring to the west of the inverted trough (“behind” cases) as seen in Keshishian et al. The largest group of cases, comprising about 40% of the cases, produced precipitation that primarily occurred between the inverted trough and the conventional warm front (“ahead” cases). A composite study compared a subset of the ahead cases with a subset of the behind cases. The ahead cases tended to be more progressive with a stronger jet stream located over the center of the parent low. Broad warm-air advection and frontogenesis in the lower troposphere were observed between the inverted trough and the surface warm front. Cold-air advection to the west of the inverted trough precluded the development of “wraparound precipitation.” In contrast, the behind cases had a stronger low-latitude wave couplet with a trough upstream of the surface low and a ridge downstream. The region of warm-air advection and frontogenesis were displaced to the west of the inverted trough and surface cyclone. In addition, the entrance region of a southwest–northeast-oriented jet streak aided the development of ascent to the west of the inverted trough while precluding the development of precipitation to the north of the conventional warm front. Thus, the inverted trough tended to act like a warm front in behind cases, as shown by Keshishian et al. Composites were also computed at both 12 and 24 h before inverted trough formation in order to generate comparisons useful to operational applications. Case study results for both ahead and behind cases will be compared with the composite cases in the companion paper.

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