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Linwood F. Whitney Jr.

Abstract

A series of five histories illustrates the apparent effect of the subtropical jet stream on severe local storms. In these cases, the polar and subtropical jet streams are in a different configuration to the east of an advancing trough. Severe storms, particularly tornadoes, are shown to occur between the jet streams and ahead of the surface front. The central observation is that the growth of vigorous squall lines and severe weather are sharply inhibited at and to the south of the subtropical jet. Thunderstorms do occur south of the subtropical jet but rarely produce severe weather in this synoptic configuration.

Speculations are presented which suggest how the subtropical jet might influence divergence, stability and even surface heating to contribute to an environment favorable for severe atoms to the north but unfavorable to the south of the jet axis.

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Linwood F. Whitney Jr.

Abstract

No abstract available.

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LINWOOD F. WHITNEY JR.

Abstract

On May 16, 1960, TIROS I televised a series of pictures over the central United States during a severe local storm situation. Comparisons are made between the location of the isolated, bright, cloud elements seen in those pictures and (1) the location of surface weather and synoptic features, (2) the location of sferics observations, and (3) the location of the upper-level jet maxima believed important in the development of severe local storm activity. Comparison is made of the cloud cover shown in the pictures to the cover indicated by the surface observations. Apparent brightness and cloud cover of the pictures is discussed in relation to both the weather activity occurring at the surface, and cloud types and cover observed at the surface. Also, cloud streets which appear in the photographs are discussed relative to the observed mind patterns and vertical temperature structure.

Evidence is presented indicating that the severe local storm activity occurred beneath three bright mesoscale cloud masses—the more vigorous activity occurring beneath two masses which were largely isolated from the large-scale patterns. Further, the latter two clouds masses are shown to he correlated well ill location with sferics observations and jet stream maxima in the lower levels of the atmosphere

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Linwood F. Whitney Jr.

Abstract

Comparisons of TIROS-viewed severe storm clouds are made with radar, sferics, and surface cloud and weather observations. Where available, the radar and sferics observations show an excellent correlation with the storm-producing cloud systems. As expected, the clouds are found to be larger than the radar echoes whereas the reliable sferics fixes closely outlined the cloud area. In the cases investigated, the cloud patterns producing severe weather are conspicuous and distinctive. They are medium scale neph systems characterized by strong brightness and well defined borders and are either isolated from other clouds or separated by a break in the cloudiness at the periphery.

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Carl O. Erickson and Linwood F. Whitney Jr.

Abstract

Not available.

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Linwood F. Whitney Jr. and James E. Miller
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Linwood F. Whitney Jr. and Sigmund Fritz

A small, bright, isolated cloud mass was observed by TIROS I over the Central Plains near an area of known tornado activity. The rectification of the TIROS picture is shown; the meteorological situation is presented; and a comparison of the picture content is made with the synoptic events. Evidence is presented indicating that (1) the first intense convective activity was associated with the isolated cloud mass in the picture, (2) the cloud mass was located in an area possessing characteristics found in tornado development situations, and (3) the cloud mass later expanded and spread northeastward spawning hail and tornadoes in central Oklahoma.

Several other significant features were seen in the satellite picture; included among these was a prominent boundary separating a very dark area from a somewhat brighter area. This boundary corresponded to a dewpoint “front” or strong moisture gradient separating very dry air from moister air.

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CARL O. ERICKSON and LINWOOD F. WHITNEY JR.

Abstract

No Abstract Available.

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