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## Abstract

Near-inertial waves (NIWs) radiate energy out of the mixed layer when they develop small lateral scales. Refraction of these waves by gradients in planetary and vertical vorticity has traditionally been invoked to explain this phenomenon. Here, a new mechanism for the enhancement of NIW radiation is described involving the interaction of NIWs with vertical circulations at fronts undergoing frontogenesis. Frontal vertical circulations drive a Doppler shift that is proportional to the wave’s vertical wavenumber *m* and that changes sign across a front, inducing large lateral differences in wave phase within a few inertial periods. Theory predicts that the process should generate a vertical energy flux that varies inversely with *m* in contrast to the *m*
^{−3} dependence expected from refraction. As a consequence, high-mode NIWs are much more effective at radiating energy when fronts and their vertical circulation are present. Numerical simulations initialized with fronts, an array of eddies that drive frontogenesis, and NIWs of various modes are used to test the theory. In the simulations, the interaction of the NIWs with the frontal vertical circulations generates wave beams that radiate down from the fronts. The resultant downward energy flux varies with *m* following the theoretical scaling laws. In the beams, the Eulerian frequency is inertial within a few percent, yet the waves’ potential and kinetic energies are comparable, thus indicating a superinertial intrinsic frequency. The downshift in Eulerian frequency from the intrinsic frequency is due to horizontal advection of the waves by the eddies.

## Abstract

Near-inertial waves (NIWs) radiate energy out of the mixed layer when they develop small lateral scales. Refraction of these waves by gradients in planetary and vertical vorticity has traditionally been invoked to explain this phenomenon. Here, a new mechanism for the enhancement of NIW radiation is described involving the interaction of NIWs with vertical circulations at fronts undergoing frontogenesis. Frontal vertical circulations drive a Doppler shift that is proportional to the wave’s vertical wavenumber *m* and that changes sign across a front, inducing large lateral differences in wave phase within a few inertial periods. Theory predicts that the process should generate a vertical energy flux that varies inversely with *m* in contrast to the *m*
^{−3} dependence expected from refraction. As a consequence, high-mode NIWs are much more effective at radiating energy when fronts and their vertical circulation are present. Numerical simulations initialized with fronts, an array of eddies that drive frontogenesis, and NIWs of various modes are used to test the theory. In the simulations, the interaction of the NIWs with the frontal vertical circulations generates wave beams that radiate down from the fronts. The resultant downward energy flux varies with *m* following the theoretical scaling laws. In the beams, the Eulerian frequency is inertial within a few percent, yet the waves’ potential and kinetic energies are comparable, thus indicating a superinertial intrinsic frequency. The downshift in Eulerian frequency from the intrinsic frequency is due to horizontal advection of the waves by the eddies.

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## Abstract

The destruction of potential vorticity (PV) at ocean fronts by wind stress–driven frictional forces is examined using PV flux formalism and numerical simulations. When a front is forced by “downfront” winds, that is, winds blowing in the direction of the frontal jet, a nonadvective frictional PV flux that is upward at the sea surface is induced. The flux extracts PV out of the ocean, leading to the formation of a boundary layer thicker than the Ekman layer, with nearly zero PV and nonzero stratification. The PV reduction is not only active in the Ekman layer but is transmitted through the boundary layer via secondary circulations that exchange low PV from the Ekman layer with high PV from the pycnocline. Extraction of PV from the pycnocline by the secondary circulations results in an upward advective PV flux at the base of the boundary layer that scales with the surface, nonadvective, frictional PV flux and that leads to the deepening of the layer. At fronts forced by both downfront winds and a destabilizing atmospheric buoyancy flux *F ^{B}
*

_{atm}, the critical parameter that determines whether the wind or the buoyancy flux is the dominant cause for PV destruction is (

*H*/

*δ*)(

_{e}*F*

^{B}_{wind}/

*F*

^{B}_{atm}), where

*H*and

*δ*are the mixed layer and Ekman layer depths,

_{e}*F*

^{B}_{wind}=

*S*

^{2}

*τ*/(

_{o}*ρ*),

_{o}f*S*

^{2}is the magnitude of the lateral buoyancy gradient of the front,

*τ*is the downfront component of the wind stress,

_{o}*ρ*is a reference density, and

_{o}*f*is the Coriolis parameter. When this parameter is greater than 1, PV destruction by winds dominates and may play an important role in the formation of mode water.

## Abstract

The destruction of potential vorticity (PV) at ocean fronts by wind stress–driven frictional forces is examined using PV flux formalism and numerical simulations. When a front is forced by “downfront” winds, that is, winds blowing in the direction of the frontal jet, a nonadvective frictional PV flux that is upward at the sea surface is induced. The flux extracts PV out of the ocean, leading to the formation of a boundary layer thicker than the Ekman layer, with nearly zero PV and nonzero stratification. The PV reduction is not only active in the Ekman layer but is transmitted through the boundary layer via secondary circulations that exchange low PV from the Ekman layer with high PV from the pycnocline. Extraction of PV from the pycnocline by the secondary circulations results in an upward advective PV flux at the base of the boundary layer that scales with the surface, nonadvective, frictional PV flux and that leads to the deepening of the layer. At fronts forced by both downfront winds and a destabilizing atmospheric buoyancy flux *F ^{B}
*

_{atm}, the critical parameter that determines whether the wind or the buoyancy flux is the dominant cause for PV destruction is (

*H*/

*δ*)(

_{e}*F*

^{B}_{wind}/

*F*

^{B}_{atm}), where

*H*and

*δ*are the mixed layer and Ekman layer depths,

_{e}*F*

^{B}_{wind}=

*S*

^{2}

*τ*/(

_{o}*ρ*),

_{o}f*S*

^{2}is the magnitude of the lateral buoyancy gradient of the front,

*τ*is the downfront component of the wind stress,

_{o}*ρ*is a reference density, and

_{o}*f*is the Coriolis parameter. When this parameter is greater than 1, PV destruction by winds dominates and may play an important role in the formation of mode water.

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## Abstract

Ekman transport, the horizontal mass transport associated with a wind stress applied on the ocean surface, is modified by the vorticity of ocean currents, leading to what has been termed the nonlinear Ekman transport. This article extends earlier work on this topic by deriving solutions for the nonlinear Ekman transport valid in currents with curvature, such as a meandering jet or circular vortex, and for flows with the Rossby number approaching unity. Tilting of the horizontal vorticity of the Ekman flow by the balanced currents modifies the ocean response to surface forcing, such that, to leading order, winds parallel to the flow drive an Ekman transport that depends only on the shear vorticity component of the vertical relative vorticity, whereas across-flow winds drive transport dependent on the curvature vorticity. Curvature in the balanced flow field thus leads to an Ekman transport that differs from previous formulations derived under the assumption of straight flows. Notably, the theory also predicts a component of the transport aligned with the surface wind stress, contrary to classic Ekman theory. In the case of the circular vortex, the solutions given here can be used to calculate the vertical velocity to a higher order of accuracy than previous solutions, extending possible applications of the theory to strong balanced flows. The existence of oscillations, and the potential for resonance and instability, in the Ekman flow at a curved jet are also demonstrated.

## Abstract

Ekman transport, the horizontal mass transport associated with a wind stress applied on the ocean surface, is modified by the vorticity of ocean currents, leading to what has been termed the nonlinear Ekman transport. This article extends earlier work on this topic by deriving solutions for the nonlinear Ekman transport valid in currents with curvature, such as a meandering jet or circular vortex, and for flows with the Rossby number approaching unity. Tilting of the horizontal vorticity of the Ekman flow by the balanced currents modifies the ocean response to surface forcing, such that, to leading order, winds parallel to the flow drive an Ekman transport that depends only on the shear vorticity component of the vertical relative vorticity, whereas across-flow winds drive transport dependent on the curvature vorticity. Curvature in the balanced flow field thus leads to an Ekman transport that differs from previous formulations derived under the assumption of straight flows. Notably, the theory also predicts a component of the transport aligned with the surface wind stress, contrary to classic Ekman theory. In the case of the circular vortex, the solutions given here can be used to calculate the vertical velocity to a higher order of accuracy than previous solutions, extending possible applications of the theory to strong balanced flows. The existence of oscillations, and the potential for resonance and instability, in the Ekman flow at a curved jet are also demonstrated.

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## Abstract

Submesoscale-resolving numerical simulations are used to investigate a mechanism for sustained mode water formation via cabbeling at thermohaline fronts subject to a confluent strain flow. The simulations serve to further elucidate the mechanism and refine the predictions of the analytical model of Thomas and Shakespeare. Unlike other proposed mechanisms involving air–sea fluxes, the cabbeling mechanism, in addition to driving significant mode water formation, uniquely determines the thermohaline properties of the mode water given knowledge of the source water masses on either side of the front. The process of mode water formation in the simulations is as follows: Confluent flow associated with idealized mesoscale eddies forces water horizontally toward the front. The frontogenetic circulation draws this water near adiabatically from the full depth of the thermohaline front up to the surface 25 m, where resolved submesoscale instabilities drive intense mixing across the thermohaline front, creating the mode water. The mode water is denser than the surrounding stratified fluid and sinks to fill its neutral buoyancy layer at depth. This layer gradually expands up to the surface, and eddies composed entirely of this mode water detach from the front and accumulate in the diffluent regions of the domain. The process continues until the source water masses are exhausted. The temperature–salinity (*T*–*S*) relation of the resulting mode water is biased to the properties of the source water that has the larger isopycnal *T*–*S* anomaly. This mechanism has the potential to drive *O*(1) Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10^{6} m^{3} s^{−1}) mode water formation and may be important in determining the properties of mode water in the global oceans.

## Abstract

Submesoscale-resolving numerical simulations are used to investigate a mechanism for sustained mode water formation via cabbeling at thermohaline fronts subject to a confluent strain flow. The simulations serve to further elucidate the mechanism and refine the predictions of the analytical model of Thomas and Shakespeare. Unlike other proposed mechanisms involving air–sea fluxes, the cabbeling mechanism, in addition to driving significant mode water formation, uniquely determines the thermohaline properties of the mode water given knowledge of the source water masses on either side of the front. The process of mode water formation in the simulations is as follows: Confluent flow associated with idealized mesoscale eddies forces water horizontally toward the front. The frontogenetic circulation draws this water near adiabatically from the full depth of the thermohaline front up to the surface 25 m, where resolved submesoscale instabilities drive intense mixing across the thermohaline front, creating the mode water. The mode water is denser than the surrounding stratified fluid and sinks to fill its neutral buoyancy layer at depth. This layer gradually expands up to the surface, and eddies composed entirely of this mode water detach from the front and accumulate in the diffluent regions of the domain. The process continues until the source water masses are exhausted. The temperature–salinity (*T*–*S*) relation of the resulting mode water is biased to the properties of the source water that has the larger isopycnal *T*–*S* anomaly. This mechanism has the potential to drive *O*(1) Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10^{6} m^{3} s^{−1}) mode water formation and may be important in determining the properties of mode water in the global oceans.

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## Abstract

Downfront, or downwelling favorable, winds are commonly found over buoyant coastal plumes. It is known that these winds can result in mixing of the plume with the ambient water and that the winds influence the transport, spatial extent, and stability of the plumes. In the present study, the interaction of the Ekman velocity in the surface layer and baroclinic instability supported by the strong horizontal density gradient of the plume is explored with the objective of understanding the potential vorticity and buoyancy budgets. The approach makes use of an idealized numerical model and scaling theory. It is shown that when winds are present the weak stratification resulting from vertical mixing and the strong baroclinicity of the front results in near-zero average potential vorticity *q*. For weak to moderate winds, the reduction of *q* by diapycnal mixing is balanced by the generation of *q* through the geostrophic stress term in the regions of strong horizontal density gradients and stable stratification. However, for very strong winds the wind stress overwhelms the geostrophic stress and leads to a reduction in *q*, which is balanced by the vertical mixing term. In the absence of winds, the geostrophic stress dominates mixing and the flow rapidly restratifies. Nonlinearity, extremes of relative vorticity and vertical velocity, and mixing are all enhanced by the presence of a coast. Scaling estimates developed for the eddy buoyancy flux, the surface potential vorticity flux, and the diapycnal mixing rate compare well with results diagnosed from a series of numerical model calculations.

## Abstract

Downfront, or downwelling favorable, winds are commonly found over buoyant coastal plumes. It is known that these winds can result in mixing of the plume with the ambient water and that the winds influence the transport, spatial extent, and stability of the plumes. In the present study, the interaction of the Ekman velocity in the surface layer and baroclinic instability supported by the strong horizontal density gradient of the plume is explored with the objective of understanding the potential vorticity and buoyancy budgets. The approach makes use of an idealized numerical model and scaling theory. It is shown that when winds are present the weak stratification resulting from vertical mixing and the strong baroclinicity of the front results in near-zero average potential vorticity *q*. For weak to moderate winds, the reduction of *q* by diapycnal mixing is balanced by the generation of *q* through the geostrophic stress term in the regions of strong horizontal density gradients and stable stratification. However, for very strong winds the wind stress overwhelms the geostrophic stress and leads to a reduction in *q*, which is balanced by the vertical mixing term. In the absence of winds, the geostrophic stress dominates mixing and the flow rapidly restratifies. Nonlinearity, extremes of relative vorticity and vertical velocity, and mixing are all enhanced by the presence of a coast. Scaling estimates developed for the eddy buoyancy flux, the surface potential vorticity flux, and the diapycnal mixing rate compare well with results diagnosed from a series of numerical model calculations.

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## Abstract

A simple analytical model is used to elucidate a potential mechanism for steady-state mode water formation at a thermohaline front that involves frontogenesis, submesoscale lateral mixing, and cabbeling. This mechanism is motivated in part by recent observations of an extremely sharp, density-compensated front at the North Wall of the Gulf Stream. Here, the intergyre, along-isopycnal, salinity–temperature difference is compressed into a span of a few kilometers, making the flow susceptible to cabbeling. The sharpness of the front is caused by frontogenetic strain, which is presumably balanced by submesoscale lateral mixing processes. The balance is studied with the simple model, and a scaling is derived for the amount of water mass transformation resulting from the ensuing cabbeling. The transformation scales with the strain rate, equilibrated width of the front, and the square of the isopycnal temperature contrast across the front. At the major ocean fronts where mode waters are found, this isopycnal temperature contrast decreases with increasing density near the isopycnal layers where mode waters reside. This implies that cabbeling should result in a convergent diapycnal mass flux into mode water density classes. The scaling for the transformation suggests that at these fronts the process could generate 0.01–1 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 10^{6} m^{3} s^{−1}) of mode water. These formation rates, while smaller than mode water formation by air–sea fluxes, should be independent of season and thus could fill select isopycnal layers continuously and play an important role in the dynamics of mode waters on interannual time scales.

## Abstract

A simple analytical model is used to elucidate a potential mechanism for steady-state mode water formation at a thermohaline front that involves frontogenesis, submesoscale lateral mixing, and cabbeling. This mechanism is motivated in part by recent observations of an extremely sharp, density-compensated front at the North Wall of the Gulf Stream. Here, the intergyre, along-isopycnal, salinity–temperature difference is compressed into a span of a few kilometers, making the flow susceptible to cabbeling. The sharpness of the front is caused by frontogenetic strain, which is presumably balanced by submesoscale lateral mixing processes. The balance is studied with the simple model, and a scaling is derived for the amount of water mass transformation resulting from the ensuing cabbeling. The transformation scales with the strain rate, equilibrated width of the front, and the square of the isopycnal temperature contrast across the front. At the major ocean fronts where mode waters are found, this isopycnal temperature contrast decreases with increasing density near the isopycnal layers where mode waters reside. This implies that cabbeling should result in a convergent diapycnal mass flux into mode water density classes. The scaling for the transformation suggests that at these fronts the process could generate 0.01–1 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 10^{6} m^{3} s^{−1}) of mode water. These formation rates, while smaller than mode water formation by air–sea fluxes, should be independent of season and thus could fill select isopycnal layers continuously and play an important role in the dynamics of mode waters on interannual time scales.

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## Abstract

Although atmospheric forcing by wind stress or buoyancy flux is known to change the ocean’s potential vorticity (PV) at the surface, less is understood about PV modification in the bottom boundary layer. The adjustment of a geostrophic current over a sloped bottom in a stratified ocean generates PV sources and sinks through friction and diapycnal mixing. The time-dependent problem is solved analytically for a no-slip boundary condition, and scalings are identified for the change in PV that arises during the adjustment to steady state. Numerical experiments are run to test the scalings with different turbulent closure schemes. The key parameters that control whether PV is injected into or extracted from the fluid are the direction of the geostrophic current and the ratio of its initial speed to its steady-state speed. When the current is in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation, downslope Ekman flow advects lighter water under denser water, driving diabatic mixing and extracting PV. For a current in the opposite direction, Ekman advection tends to restratify the bottom boundary layer and increase the PV. Mixing near the bottom counteracts this restratification, however, and an increase in PV will only occur for current speeds exceeding a critical value. Consequently, the change in PV is asymmetric for currents of the opposite sign but the same speed, with a bias toward PV removal. In the limit of a large speed ratio, the change in PV is independent of diapycnal mixing.

## Abstract

Although atmospheric forcing by wind stress or buoyancy flux is known to change the ocean’s potential vorticity (PV) at the surface, less is understood about PV modification in the bottom boundary layer. The adjustment of a geostrophic current over a sloped bottom in a stratified ocean generates PV sources and sinks through friction and diapycnal mixing. The time-dependent problem is solved analytically for a no-slip boundary condition, and scalings are identified for the change in PV that arises during the adjustment to steady state. Numerical experiments are run to test the scalings with different turbulent closure schemes. The key parameters that control whether PV is injected into or extracted from the fluid are the direction of the geostrophic current and the ratio of its initial speed to its steady-state speed. When the current is in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation, downslope Ekman flow advects lighter water under denser water, driving diabatic mixing and extracting PV. For a current in the opposite direction, Ekman advection tends to restratify the bottom boundary layer and increase the PV. Mixing near the bottom counteracts this restratification, however, and an increase in PV will only occur for current speeds exceeding a critical value. Consequently, the change in PV is asymmetric for currents of the opposite sign but the same speed, with a bias toward PV removal. In the limit of a large speed ratio, the change in PV is independent of diapycnal mixing.

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## Abstract

An analysis and physical interpretation of near-inertial waves (NIWs) propagating perpendicular to a steady, two-dimensional, strongly baroclinic, geostrophic current are presented. The analysis is appropriate for geostrophic currents with order-one Richardson numbers such as those associated with fronts experiencing strong, wintertime atmospheric forcing. This work highlights the underlying physics behind the properties of the NIWs using parcel arguments and the principles of conservation of density and absolute momentum. Baroclinicity introduces lateral gradients in density and vertical gradients in absolute momentum that significantly modify the dispersion and polarization relations and propagation of NIWs relative to classical internal wave theory. In particular, oscillations at the minimum frequency are not horizontal but, instead, are slanted along isopycnals. Furthermore, the polarization of the horizontal velocity is not necessarily circular at the minimum frequency and the spiraling of the wave’s velocity vector with time and depth can be in the opposite direction from that predicted by classical theory. Ray tracing and numerical solutions illustrate the trapping and amplification of NIWs in regions of strong baroclinicity where the wave frequency is lower than the effective Coriolis frequency. The largest amplification is found at slantwise critical layers that align with the tilted isopycnals of the current. Such slantwise critical layers are seen in wintertime observations of the Gulf Stream and, consistent with the theory, coincide with regions of intensified ageostrophic shear characterized by a banded structure that is spatially coherent along isopycnals.

## Abstract

An analysis and physical interpretation of near-inertial waves (NIWs) propagating perpendicular to a steady, two-dimensional, strongly baroclinic, geostrophic current are presented. The analysis is appropriate for geostrophic currents with order-one Richardson numbers such as those associated with fronts experiencing strong, wintertime atmospheric forcing. This work highlights the underlying physics behind the properties of the NIWs using parcel arguments and the principles of conservation of density and absolute momentum. Baroclinicity introduces lateral gradients in density and vertical gradients in absolute momentum that significantly modify the dispersion and polarization relations and propagation of NIWs relative to classical internal wave theory. In particular, oscillations at the minimum frequency are not horizontal but, instead, are slanted along isopycnals. Furthermore, the polarization of the horizontal velocity is not necessarily circular at the minimum frequency and the spiraling of the wave’s velocity vector with time and depth can be in the opposite direction from that predicted by classical theory. Ray tracing and numerical solutions illustrate the trapping and amplification of NIWs in regions of strong baroclinicity where the wave frequency is lower than the effective Coriolis frequency. The largest amplification is found at slantwise critical layers that align with the tilted isopycnals of the current. Such slantwise critical layers are seen in wintertime observations of the Gulf Stream and, consistent with the theory, coincide with regions of intensified ageostrophic shear characterized by a banded structure that is spatially coherent along isopycnals.

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## Abstract

A slab mixed layer model and two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to study the generation and energetics of near-inertial oscillations in a unidirectional, laterally sheared geostrophic current forced by oscillatory winds. The vertical vorticity of the current *ζ*
_{
g
} modifies the effective Coriolis frequency *ζ*
_{
g
}/*f*)^{2} for *ζ*
_{
g
} ≪ *f*. For *ζ*
_{
g
} ~ *f*, this sink of geostrophic kinetic energy preferentially damps flows with anticyclonic vorticity and thus could contribute toward shaping the positively skewed vorticity distribution observed in the upper ocean.

## Abstract

A slab mixed layer model and two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to study the generation and energetics of near-inertial oscillations in a unidirectional, laterally sheared geostrophic current forced by oscillatory winds. The vertical vorticity of the current *ζ*
_{
g
} modifies the effective Coriolis frequency *ζ*
_{
g
}/*f*)^{2} for *ζ*
_{
g
} ≪ *f*. For *ζ*
_{
g
} ~ *f*, this sink of geostrophic kinetic energy preferentially damps flows with anticyclonic vorticity and thus could contribute toward shaping the positively skewed vorticity distribution observed in the upper ocean.

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## Abstract

The inferred diapycnal upwelling in the abyssal meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is intensified near the equator, but little is known as to why this is so. In this study, it is shown that the reflection of equatorially trapped waves (ETWs) off the bottom leads to seafloor-intensified mixing and substantial diapycnal upwelling near the equator when the full Coriolis force and the so-called nontraditional effects are taken into account. Using idealized simulations run with the MITgcm of downward-propagating ETWs of various types (i.e., inertia–gravity, Yanai, Kelvin, and Rossby waves) accounting for nontraditional effects, it is demonstrated that the reflection of ETWs off a flat seafloor generates beams of short inertia–gravity waves with strong vertical shear and low Richardson numbers that result in bottom-intensified, persistent, zonally invariant mixing at the inertial latitude of the ETW through the mechanism of critical reflection. The beams are more intense with weaker stratification and, for a given wave type, are stronger for waves with shorter periods and longer vertical wavelengths. The intensity of the beams also differs between wave types because their distinct meridional structures modulate the amount of energy fluxed to the bottom at the inertial latitude. As a result, equatorial inertia–gravity, Rossby, and eastward-propagating Yanai waves yield stronger mixing than Kelvin and westward-propagating Yanai waves in the simulations. It is estimated that this process can result in order 10 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10^{6} m^{3} s^{−1}) of diapycnal upwelling per wavelength of ETW in the abyss and thus could play an important role in closing the AMOC.

## Abstract

The inferred diapycnal upwelling in the abyssal meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is intensified near the equator, but little is known as to why this is so. In this study, it is shown that the reflection of equatorially trapped waves (ETWs) off the bottom leads to seafloor-intensified mixing and substantial diapycnal upwelling near the equator when the full Coriolis force and the so-called nontraditional effects are taken into account. Using idealized simulations run with the MITgcm of downward-propagating ETWs of various types (i.e., inertia–gravity, Yanai, Kelvin, and Rossby waves) accounting for nontraditional effects, it is demonstrated that the reflection of ETWs off a flat seafloor generates beams of short inertia–gravity waves with strong vertical shear and low Richardson numbers that result in bottom-intensified, persistent, zonally invariant mixing at the inertial latitude of the ETW through the mechanism of critical reflection. The beams are more intense with weaker stratification and, for a given wave type, are stronger for waves with shorter periods and longer vertical wavelengths. The intensity of the beams also differs between wave types because their distinct meridional structures modulate the amount of energy fluxed to the bottom at the inertial latitude. As a result, equatorial inertia–gravity, Rossby, and eastward-propagating Yanai waves yield stronger mixing than Kelvin and westward-propagating Yanai waves in the simulations. It is estimated that this process can result in order 10 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10^{6} m^{3} s^{−1}) of diapycnal upwelling per wavelength of ETW in the abyss and thus could play an important role in closing the AMOC.