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James A. Carton, Gennady A. Chepurin, and Ligang Chen


This paper describes version 3 of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA3) ocean reanalysis with enhancements to model resolution, observation, and forcing datasets, and the addition of active sea ice. SODA3 relies on the ocean component of the NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory CM2.5 coupled model with nominal ¼° resolution. A scheme has also been implemented to reduce bias in the surface fluxes. A 37-yr-long ocean reanalysis, SODA3.4.2, created using this new SODA3 system is compared to the previous generation of SODA (SODA2.2.4) as well as to the Hadley Centre EN4.1.1 no-model statistical objective analysis. The comparison is carried out in the tropics, the midlatitudes, and the Arctic and includes examinations of the meridional overturning circulation in the Atlantic. The comparison shows that SODA3.4.2 has reduced systematic errors to a level comparable to those of the no-model statistical objective analysis in the upper ocean. The accuracy of variability has been improved particularly poleward of the tropics, with the greatest improvements seen in the Arctic, accompanying a substantial reduction in surface net heat and freshwater flux bias. These improvements justify increasing use of ocean reanalysis for climate studies including the higher latitudes.

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Xin-Zhong Liang, Min Xu, Xing Yuan, Tiejun Ling, Hyun I. Choi, Feng Zhang, Ligang Chen, Shuyan Liu, Shenjian Su, Fengxue Qiao, Yuxiang He, Julian X. L. Wang, Kenneth E. Kunkel, Wei Gao, Everette Joseph, Vernon Morris, Tsann-Wang Yu, Jimy Dudhia, and John Michalakes

The CWRF is developed as a climate extension of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) by incorporating numerous improvements in the representation of physical processes and integration of external (top, surface, lateral) forcings that are crucial to climate scales, including interactions between land, atmosphere, and ocean; convection and microphysics; and cloud, aerosol, and radiation; and system consistency throughout all process modules. This extension inherits all WRF functionalities for numerical weather prediction while enhancing the capability for climate modeling. As such, CWRF can be applied seamlessly to weather forecast and climate prediction. The CWRF is built with a comprehensive ensemble of alternative parameterization schemes for each of the key physical processes, including surface (land, ocean), planetary boundary layer, cumulus (deep, shallow), microphysics, cloud, aerosol, and radiation, and their interactions. This facilitates the use of an optimized physics ensemble approach to improve weather or climate prediction along with a reliable uncertainty estimate. The CWRF also emphasizes the societal service capability to provide impactrelevant information by coupling with detailed models of terrestrial hydrology, coastal ocean, crop growth, air quality, and a recently expanded interactive water quality and ecosystem model.

This study provides a general CWRF description and basic skill evaluation based on a continuous integration for the period 1979– 2009 as compared with that of WRF, using a 30-km grid spacing over a domain that includes the contiguous United States plus southern Canada and northern Mexico. In addition to advantages of greater application capability, CWRF improves performance in radiation and terrestrial hydrology over WRF and other regional models. Precipitation simulation, however, remains a challenge for all of the tested models.

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