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Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

The 1991 hurricane season produced 76 tropical waves of which 12 became tropical depressions. African seedlings initiated 10 of the 14 named Atlantic storms and all of the eastern Pacific tropical cyclones. A comparison with previous years is presented.

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Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

The 1990 eastern Pacific hurricane season is summarized. Twenty tropical storms were tracked of which 16 became hurricanes. Hurricanes Hernan and Trudy were among the strongest ever observed in this area. Rachel was the only system to make landfall.

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Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

The 1989 season produced 63 African waves, 15 tropical depressions and 11 tropical storms, 7 of which became hurricanes. All of the tropical storms developed from African waves. A comparison with the past 22 years is included.

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Lixion A. Avila and Jamie Rhome

Abstract

The hurricane season of 2007 in the eastern North Pacific Ocean basin is summarized, individual tropical cyclones are described, and a forecast verification is presented. The 2007 eastern North Pacific season was not an active one. There were 11 tropical storms, of which only 4 became hurricanes. Only one cyclone became a major hurricane. One hurricane struck Mexico and one tropical storm made landfall near the Guatemala–Mexico border. The 2007 National Hurricane Center forecast track errors were lower than the previous 5-yr means at all forecast lead times, and especially so for the 72-, 96-, and 120-h periods when the errors were 16%, 22%, and 20% lower, respectively. The official intensity forecasts had only limited skill.

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Lixion A. Avila and Max Mayfield

Abstract

The National Hurricane Center tracked 14 tropical storms, 10 of which became hurricanes, during the 1993 eastern North Pacific hurricane season. Four named tropical cyclones and one tropical depression made landfall in Mexico. A general overview of the 1993 hurricane season is presented.

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Lixion A. Avila and Richard J. Pasch

Abstract

The 1991 hurricane season in the Atlantic basin featured 73 tropical waves (also known as African waves), most of which were relatively weak. These waves generated fewer than normal Atlantic tropical cyclones: seven tropical depressions, of which only three intensified into tropical storms. Remarkably, none of these systems became hurricanes. The remainder of the Atlantic tropical cyclones formed from other sources. African waves triggered nearly all of the eastern Pacific tropical cyclones in 1991.

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Lixion A. Avila and Edward N. Rappaport

Abstract

The 1994 Atlantic hurricane season had only three hurricanes forming from just seven tropical storms. Several of these tropical cyclones, however, caused loss of life and great damage. Gordon, as a tropical storm, produced floods that killed more than 1100 people in Haiti. Alberto, Beryl, and Gordon hit the United States, causing 38 deaths and nearly $1 billion in damage over the southeastern states.

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

A summary of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season is given, and the individual tropical storms and hurricanes are described. This was the second active year in a row with a large number of intense hurricanes. Hurricane Fran, which hit the coast of North Carolina, was the strongest system to make landfall, and also the most destructive.

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

A total of 69 tropical waves (also known as African and easterly waves) were counted in the Atlantic basin during the 1992 hurricane season. As was the case in 1991, the waves were, in general, relatively weak. These waves led to the formation of only four tropical depressions in the Atlantic hurricane basin, of which one intensified into a tropical storm and another intensified into Hurricane Andrew. Andrew was the only 1992 Atlantic hurricane to originate from a tropical wave. There were five additional tropical depressions that were primarily initiated by systems of nontropical origin. These produced three hurricanes and one tropical storm. It appears that tropical waves led to the formation of practically all of the eastern Pacific tropical cyclones in 1992.

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Robert J. Berg and Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

The 2009 Atlantic season was marked by below-average tropical cyclone activity with the formation of nine tropical storms, the fewest since the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season. Of these, three became hurricanes and two strengthened into major hurricanes (category 3 or higher on the Saffir––Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale). In addition, there were two tropical depressions that did not reach storm strength. The numbers of tropical storms and hurricanes were below the long-term averages of 11 named storms and 6 hurricanes, although the number of major hurricanes equaled the long-term average of 2. Many of the cyclones remained relatively weak. Only one tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Claudette, made landfall in the United States, although Ida affected the northern Gulf Coast as a tropical storm before moving inland as an extratropical cyclone. Hurricane Bill and Tropical Storm Danny indirectly affected the East Coast by producing high surf, rip currents, and beach erosion; Bill also produced tropical storm conditions over Bermuda and parts of Atlantic Canada. Hurricane Ida made landfall in Nicaragua and also affected parts of Honduras, the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, and western Cuba. Tropical Storm Erika had minor effects on the northern Leeward Islands, mainly in the form of light rain, and Tropical Storm Grace moved through the Azores with little impact. The death toll from the 2009 Atlantic tropical cyclones was six.

A verification of National Hurricane Center official forecasts during 2009 is also presented. Official track errors and forecast skill set records for accuracy at lead times between 24 and 72 h. Official intensity forecast errors were mostly larger than the previous 5-yr means, although intensity forecast skill was at or above historical highs since the intensity skill baseline [i.e., Decay-Statistical Hurricane Intensity Forecast model version 5 (Decay-SHIFOR5)] errors were well above average.

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