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Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

The 1989 season produced 63 African waves, 15 tropical depressions and 11 tropical storms, 7 of which became hurricanes. All of the tropical storms developed from African waves. A comparison with the past 22 years is included.

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Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

The 1991 hurricane season produced 76 tropical waves of which 12 became tropical depressions. African seedlings initiated 10 of the 14 named Atlantic storms and all of the eastern Pacific tropical cyclones. A comparison with previous years is presented.

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Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

The 1990 eastern Pacific hurricane season is summarized. Twenty tropical storms were tracked of which 16 became hurricanes. Hurricanes Hernan and Trudy were among the strongest ever observed in this area. Rachel was the only system to make landfall.

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Lixion A. Avila and Max Mayfield

Abstract

The National Hurricane Center tracked 14 tropical storms, 10 of which became hurricanes, during the 1993 eastern North Pacific hurricane season. Four named tropical cyclones and one tropical depression made landfall in Mexico. A general overview of the 1993 hurricane season is presented.

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Lixion A. Avila and Jamie Rhome

Abstract

The hurricane season of 2007 in the eastern North Pacific Ocean basin is summarized, individual tropical cyclones are described, and a forecast verification is presented. The 2007 eastern North Pacific season was not an active one. There were 11 tropical storms, of which only 4 became hurricanes. Only one cyclone became a major hurricane. One hurricane struck Mexico and one tropical storm made landfall near the Guatemala–Mexico border. The 2007 National Hurricane Center forecast track errors were lower than the previous 5-yr means at all forecast lead times, and especially so for the 72-, 96-, and 120-h periods when the errors were 16%, 22%, and 20% lower, respectively. The official intensity forecasts had only limited skill.

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Robert J. Berg and Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

The 2009 Atlantic season was marked by below-average tropical cyclone activity with the formation of nine tropical storms, the fewest since the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season. Of these, three became hurricanes and two strengthened into major hurricanes (category 3 or higher on the Saffir––Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale). In addition, there were two tropical depressions that did not reach storm strength. The numbers of tropical storms and hurricanes were below the long-term averages of 11 named storms and 6 hurricanes, although the number of major hurricanes equaled the long-term average of 2. Many of the cyclones remained relatively weak. Only one tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Claudette, made landfall in the United States, although Ida affected the northern Gulf Coast as a tropical storm before moving inland as an extratropical cyclone. Hurricane Bill and Tropical Storm Danny indirectly affected the East Coast by producing high surf, rip currents, and beach erosion; Bill also produced tropical storm conditions over Bermuda and parts of Atlantic Canada. Hurricane Ida made landfall in Nicaragua and also affected parts of Honduras, the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, and western Cuba. Tropical Storm Erika had minor effects on the northern Leeward Islands, mainly in the form of light rain, and Tropical Storm Grace moved through the Azores with little impact. The death toll from the 2009 Atlantic tropical cyclones was six.

A verification of National Hurricane Center official forecasts during 2009 is also presented. Official track errors and forecast skill set records for accuracy at lead times between 24 and 72 h. Official intensity forecast errors were mostly larger than the previous 5-yr means, although intensity forecast skill was at or above historical highs since the intensity skill baseline [i.e., Decay-Statistical Hurricane Intensity Forecast model version 5 (Decay-SHIFOR5)] errors were well above average.

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

Abstract

A total of 69 tropical waves (also known as African and easterly waves) were counted in the Atlantic basin during the 1992 hurricane season. As was the case in 1991, the waves were, in general, relatively weak. These waves led to the formation of only four tropical depressions in the Atlantic hurricane basin, of which one intensified into a tropical storm and another intensified into Hurricane Andrew. Andrew was the only 1992 Atlantic hurricane to originate from a tropical wave. There were five additional tropical depressions that were primarily initiated by systems of nontropical origin. These produced three hurricanes and one tropical storm. It appears that tropical waves led to the formation of practically all of the eastern Pacific tropical cyclones in 1992.

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Lixion A. Avila and Stacy R. Stewart

Abstract

The 2011 Atlantic season was marked by above-average tropical cyclone activity with the formation of 19 tropical storms. Seven of the storms became hurricanes and four became major hurricanes (category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale). The numbers of tropical storms and hurricanes were above the long-term averages of 12 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 3 major hurricanes. Despite the high level of activity, Irene was the only hurricane to hit land in 2011, striking both the Bahamas and the United States. Other storms, however, affected the United States, eastern Canada, Central America, eastern Mexico, and the northeastern Caribbean Sea islands. The death toll from the 2011 Atlantic tropical cyclones is 80. National Hurricane Center mean official track forecast errors in 2011 were smaller than the previous 5-yr means at all forecast times except 120 h. In addition, the official track forecast errors set records for accuracy at the 24-, 36-, 48-, and 72-h forecast times. The mean intensity forecast errors in 2011 ranged from about 6 kt (~3 m s−1) at 12 h to about 17 kt (~9 m s−1) at 72 and 120 h. These errors were below the 5-yr means at all forecast times.

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Lixion A. Avila and Gilbert B. Clark

Abstract

.The 1988 season produced 62 tropical waves, 19 tropical depressions and 12 tropical storms, 5 of which became hurricanes. Eighty-three percent of the tropical storms developed from African waves. A comparison with the past 21 years is included.

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Lixion A. Avila and Richard J. Pasch

Abstract

A total of 70 tropical waves (also known as African or easterly waves) were counted in the Atlantic basin during the 1993 hurricane season. These waves led to the formation of 9 of the 10 total number of tropical cyclones in the Atlantic hurricane basin. It appears that tropical waves led to the formation of practically all of the eastern Pacific tropical cyclones in 1993.

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