Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Louie Grasso x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Daniel T. Lindsey and Louie Grasso

Abstract

Satellite retrieval of cirrus cloud microphysical properties is an important but difficult problem because of uncertainties in ice-scattering characteristics. Most methods have been developed for instruments aboard polar-orbiting satellites, which have better spatial and spectral resolution than geostationary sensors. The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) series has the advantage of excellent temporal resolution, so that the evolution of thunderstorm-cloud-top properties can be monitored. In this paper, the authors discuss the development of a simple ice cloud effective radius retrieval for thick ice clouds using three bands from the GOES imager: one each in the visible, shortwave infrared, and window infrared portion of the spectrum. It is shown that this retrieval compares favorably to the MODIS effective radius algorithm. In addition, a comparison of the retrieval for clouds viewed simultaneously from GOES-East and GOES-West reveals that the assumed ice-scattering properties perform very well. The algorithm is then used to produce maps of mean ice cloud effective radius over the continental United States. A real-time version of this retrieval is currently running and may be used to study the evolution of thunderstorm-top ice crystal size in rapidly evolving convection.

Full access
Daniel T. Lindsey, Steven D. Miller, and Louie Grasso
Full access
Daniel T. Lindsey, Louie Grasso, John F. Dostalek, and Jochen Kerkmann

Abstract

The depth of boundary layer water vapor plays a critical role in convective cloud formation in the warm season, but numerical models often struggle with accurate predictions of above-surface moisture. Satellite retrievals of water vapor have been developed, but they are limited by the use of a model’s first guess, instrument spectral resolution, horizontal footprint size, and vertical resolution. In 2016, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), the first in a series of new-generation geostationary satellites, will be launched. Its Advanced Baseline Imager will provide unprecedented spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution. Among the bands are two centered at 10.35 and 12.3 μm. The brightness temperature difference between these bands is referred to as the split-window difference, and has been shown to provide information about atmospheric column water vapor. In this paper, the split-window difference is reexamined from the perspective of GOES-R and radiative transfer model simulations are used to better understand the factors controlling its value. It is shown that the simple split-window difference can provide useful information for forecasters about deepening low-level water vapor in a cloud-free environment.

Full access
Daniel T. Lindsey, Donald W. Hillger, Louie Grasso, John A. Knaff, and John F. Dostalek

Abstract

By combining observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 3.9- and 10.7-μm channels, the reflected component of the 3.9-μm radiance can be isolated. In this paper, these 3.9-μm reflectivity measurements of thunderstorm tops are studied in terms of their climatological values and their utility in diagnosing cloud-top microphysical structure. These measurements provide information about internal thunderstorm processes, including updraft strength, and may be useful for severe weather nowcasting. Three years of summertime thunderstorm-top 3.9-μm reflectivity values are analyzed to produce maps of climatological means across the United States. Maxima occur in the high plains and Rocky Mountain regions, while lower values are observed over much of the eastern United States. A simple model is used to establish a relationship between 3.9-μm reflectivity and ice crystal size at cloud top. As the mean diameter of a cloud-top ice crystal distribution decreases, more solar radiation near 3.9 μm is reflected. Using the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset, the thermodynamic environment that favors thunderstorms with large 3.9-μm reflectivity values is identified. In the high plains and mountains, environments with relatively dry boundary layers, steep lapse rates, and large vertical shear values favor thunderstorms with enhanced 3.9-μm reflectivity. Thunderstorm processes that lead to small ice crystals at cloud top are discussed, and a possible relationship between updraft strength and 3.9-μm reflectivity is presented.

Full access
Dan Bikos, Daniel T. Lindsey, Jason Otkin, Justin Sieglaff, Louie Grasso, Chris Siewert, James Correia Jr., Michael Coniglio, Robert Rabin, John S. Kain, and Scott Dembek

Abstract

Output from a real-time high-resolution numerical model is used to generate synthetic infrared satellite imagery. It is shown that this imagery helps to characterize model-simulated large-scale precursors to the formation of deep-convective storms as well as the subsequent development of storm systems. A strategy for using this imagery in the forecasting of severe convective weather is presented. This strategy involves comparing model-simulated precursors to their observed counterparts to help anticipate model errors in the timing and location of storm formation, while using the simulated storm evolution as guidance.

Full access
Sid A. Boukabara, Tong Zhu, Hendrik L. Tolman, Steve Lord, Steven Goodman, Robert Atlas, Mitch Goldberg, Thomas Auligne, Bradley Pierce, Lidia Cucurull, Milija Zupanski, Man Zhang, Isaac Moradi, Jason Otkin, David Santek, Brett Hoover, Zhaoxia Pu, Xiwu Zhan, Christopher Hain, Eugenia Kalnay, Daisuke Hotta, Scott Nolin, Eric Bayler, Avichal Mehra, Sean P. F. Casey, Daniel Lindsey, Louie Grasso, V. Krishna Kumar, Alfred Powell, Jianjun Xu, Thomas Greenwald, Joe Zajic, Jun Li, Jinliong Li, Bin Li, Jicheng Liu, Li Fang, Pei Wang, and Tse-Chun Chen

Abstract

In 2011, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began a cooperative initiative with the academic community to help address a vexing issue that has long been known as a disconnection between the operational and research realms for weather forecasting and data assimilation. The issue is the gap, more exotically referred to as the “valley of death,” between efforts within the broader research community and NOAA’s activities, which are heavily driven by operational constraints. With the stated goals of leveraging research community efforts to benefit NOAA’s mission and offering a path to operations for the latest research activities that support the NOAA mission, satellite data assimilation in particular, this initiative aims to enhance the linkage between NOAA’s operational systems and the research efforts. A critical component is the establishment of an efficient operations-to-research (O2R) environment on the Supercomputer for Satellite Simulations and Data Assimilation Studies (S4). This O2R environment is critical for successful research-to-operations (R2O) transitions because it allows rigorous tracking, implementation, and merging of any changes necessary (to operational software codes, scripts, libraries, etc.) to achieve the scientific enhancement. So far, the S4 O2R environment, with close to 4,700 computing cores (60 TFLOPs) and 1,700-TB disk storage capacity, has been a great success and consequently was recently expanded to significantly increase its computing capacity. The objective of this article is to highlight some of the major achievements and benefits of this O2R approach and some lessons learned, with the ultimate goal of inspiring other O2R/R2O initiatives in other areas and for other applications.

Full access