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Louis J. Battan
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Louis J. Battan

A review of the referencing practices in selected journals published in the United States, the Soviet Union, and England shows that cloud physicists rely to a great extent on material published in the native languages of the authors. This practice has persisted for more than two decades and demonstrates a degree of chauvinism not appropriate in a scientific discipline.

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Louis J. Battan

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Louis J. Battan
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Louis J. Battan

Abstract

Calculations have been made of the radar reflectivity and attenuation produced by exponential distributions of dry and wet ice spheres. Appropriate data are presented in the form of tables and graphs. It is shown that attenuation by wet spheres is substantially larger than that by dry spheres. If the ice spheres axe coated with a layer of water 0.05 cm thick and extend in diameters to ∼2 cm, they would produce two-way attenuations of about 7, 5 and 1 db km−1 at wavelengths of 3.21, 5.5 and 10.0 cm, respectively. Procedures for the radar detection of hail must take into account the attenuation caused by the hail itself.

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Louis J. Battan
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Louis J. Battan
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Louis J. Battan

Abstract

Summer convective clouds over a fairly isolated mountain range over southeastern Arizona were seeded by means of airborne silver-iodide generators. The selection of days to be seeded was made according to a randomization scheme involving the examination of pairs of days. After a program conducted during the period 1957 to 1960 failed to show that rainfall was increased, the experimental procedures were changed and a second set of tests were performed during 1961, 1962 and 1964.

This report deals with the analysis of rainfall measured by networks of recording rain gages over the mountain target. The data do not support a hypothesis that rainfall was increased as a result of the silver-iodide seeding.

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Louis J. Battan

Abstract

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Louis J. Battan

The U.S.S.R. has a large investment in weather modification research and operations. Major cloud physics experimental facilities exist at the Institute of Experimental Meteorology and at the Institute of Geophysics of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Hail suppression operations are being carried out over about 5 000 000 ha of farmland. Although claims of success in these activities are more modest than they were in 1969, it is still reported that the benefits far exceed the costs. There is relatively little research and, at this time, apparently only one small-scale operational program dealing with precipitation augmentation. Research in the Ukraine over the last three years has led scientists there to conclude that ice nuclei seeding of cumulonimbus clouds, over a substantial area, caused rainfall increases of about 30%. It also was reported that snow from frontal clouds was increased.

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