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Louise Nuijens, Bjorn Stevens, and A. Pier Siebesma

Abstract

Quantitative estimates of precipitation in a typical undisturbed trade wind region are derived from 2 months of radar reflectivity data and compared to the meteorological environment determined from soundings, surface flux, and airborne-lidar data. Shallow precipitation was ubiquitous, covering on average about 2% of the region and contributing to at least half of the total precipitation. Echo fractions on the scale of the radar domain range between 0% and 10% and vary greatly within a period from a few hours to a day. Variability in precipitation relates most strongly to variability in humidity and the zonal wind speed, although greater inversion heights and deeper clouds are also evident at times of more rain. The analysis herein suggests that subtle fluctuations in both the strength of the easterlies and in subsidence play a major role in regulating humidity and hence precipitation, even within a given meteorological regime (here, the undisturbed trades).

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Robert M. Rauber, Bjorn Stevens, Jennifer Davison, Sabine Goke, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, David Rogers, Paquita Zuidema, Harry T. Ochs III, Charles Knight, Jorgen Jensen, Sarah Bereznicki, Simona Bordoni, Humberto Caro-Gautier, Marilé Colón-Robles, Maylissa Deliz, Shaunna Donaher, Virendra Ghate, Ela Grzeszczak, Colleen Henry, Anne Marie Hertel, Ieng Jo, Michael Kruk, Jason Lowenstein, Judith Malley, Brian Medeiros, Yarilis Méndez-Lopez, Subhashree Mishra, Flavia Morales-García, Louise A. Nuijens, Dennis O'Donnell, Diana L. Ortiz-Montalvo, Kristen Rasmussen, Erin Riepe, Sarah Scalia, Efthymios Serpetzoglou, Haiwei Shen, Michael Siedsma, Jennifer Small, Eric Snodgrass, Panu Trivej, and Jonathan Zawislak

The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean (RICO) field campaign carried out a wide array of educational activities, including a major first in a field project—a complete mission, including research flights, planned and executed entirely by students. This article describes the educational opportunities provided to the 24 graduate and 9 undergraduate students who participated in RICO.

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