Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: Luca Centurioni x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Gilles Reverdin

Abstract

Salinity measurements from drifters constitute an important in situ dataset for the calibration and validation of the sea surface salinity satellite missions. A total of 114 satellite-tracked salinity drifters were deployed within the framework of the first Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) experiment in the subtropical North Atlantic focusing on the period August 2012–April 2014. In this study, a subset of 83 drifters, which provided useful salinity measurements in the central SPURS region from a few weeks to more than one year, is evaluated and an ad hoc quality-control procedure based on previously published work and the new observations is described. It was found that the sampling algorithm of the drifters introduces a predominantly fresh bias in the noise level of the salinity data, probably caused by the presence of air bubbles within the measuring cell. Since such noise is difficult to eliminate using statistical methods, extensive editing was done manually instead. Such quality-control procedures cannot be routinely applied to the real-time data stream from the drifters. Therefore, a revision of the sampling algorithm of the drifter’s salinity sensor is needed. Comparisons of the drifter’s salinity measurements with independent datasets further indicate that the sensor can provide reliable observations for up to one year. Finally, little evidence was found that the quality of the drifter’s salinity measurements depends on the presence of the drogue.

Full access
Rick Lumpkin, Luca Centurioni, and Renellys C. Perez

Abstract

The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) requirements for in situ surface temperature and velocity measurements call for observations at 5° × 5° resolution. A key component of the GOOS that measures these essential climate variables is the global array of surface drifters. In this study, statistical observing system sampling experiments are performed to evaluate how many drifters are required to achieve the GOOS requirements, both with and without the presence of a completed global tropical moored buoy array at 5°S–5°N. The statistics for these simulations are derived from the evolution of the actual global drifter array. It is concluded that drifters should be deployed within the near-equatorial band even though that band is also in principle covered by the tropical moored array, as the benefits of not doing so are marginal. It is also concluded that an optimal design half-life for the drifters is ~450 days, neglecting external sources of death, such as running aground or being picked up. Finally, it is concluded that comparing the drifter array size to the number of static 5° × 5° open-ocean bins is not an ideal performance indicator for system evaluation; a better performance indicator is the fraction of 5° × 5° open-ocean bins sampled, neglecting bins with high drifter death rates.

Full access
Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

Abstract

A cluster of 45 drifters deployed in the Bay of Bengal is tracked for a period of four months. Pair dispersion statistics, from observed drifter trajectories and simulated trajectories based on surface geostrophic velocity, are analyzed as a function of drifter separation and time. Pair dispersion suggests nonlocal dynamics at submesoscales of 1–20 km, likely controlled by the energetic mesoscale eddies present during the observations. Second-order velocity structure functions and their Helmholtz decomposition, however, suggest local dispersion and divergent horizontal flow at scales below 20 km. This inconsistency cannot be explained by inertial oscillations alone, as has been reported in recent studies, and is likely related to other nondispersive processes that impact structure functions but do not enter pair dispersion statistics. At scales comparable to the deformation radius L D, which is approximately 60 km, we find dynamics in agreement with Richardson’s law and observe local dispersion in both pair dispersion statistics and second-order velocity structure functions.

Full access
Luca R. Centurioni, Pearn P. Niiler, and Dong-Kyu Lee

Abstract

Velocity observations near the surface made with Argos satellite-tracked drifters between 1989 and 2002 provide evidence of seasonal currents entering the South China Sea from the Philippine Sea through the Luzon Strait. The drifters cross the strait and reach the interior of the South China Sea only between October and January, with ensemble mean speeds of 0.7 ± 0.4 m s−1 and daily mean westward speeds that can exceed 1.65 m s−1. The majority of the drifters that continued to reside in the South China Sea made the entry within a westward current system located at ∼20°N that crossed the prevailing northward Kuroshio path. In other seasons, the drifters looped across the strait within the Kuroshio and exited along the south coast of Taiwan. During one intrusion event, satellite altimeters indicated that, directly west of the strait, anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies resided, respectively, north and south of the entering drifter track. The surface currents measured by the crossing drifters were much larger than the Ekman currents that would be produced by an 8–10 m s−1 northeast monsoon, suggesting that a deeper westward current system, as seen in historical watermass analyses, was present.

Full access
Luca Centurioni, András Horányi, Carla Cardinali, Etienne Charpentier, and Rick Lumpkin

Abstract

Since 1994 the U.S. Global Drifter Program (GDP) and its international partners cooperating within the Data Buoy Cooperation Panel (DBCP) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) have been deploying drifters equipped with barometers primarily in the extratropical regions of the world’s oceans in support of operational weather forecasting. To date, the impact of the drifter data isolated from other sources has never been studied. This essay quantifies and discusses the effect and the impact of in situ sea level atmospheric pressure (SLP) data from the global drifter array on numerical weather prediction using observing system experiments and forecast sensitivity observation impact studies. The in situ drifter SLP observations are extremely valuable for anchoring the global surface pressure field and significantly contributing to accurate marine weather forecasts, especially in regions where no other in situ observations are available, for example, the Southern Ocean. Furthermore, the forecast sensitivity observation impact analysis indicates that the SLP drifter data are the most valuable per-observation contributor of the Global Observing System (GOS). All these results give evidence that surface pressure observations of drifting buoys are essential ingredients of the GOS and that their quantity, quality, and distribution should be preserved as much as possible in order to avoid any analysis and forecast degradations. The barometer upgrade program offered by the GDP, under which GDP-funded drifters can be equipped with partner-funded accurate air pressure sensors, is a practical example of how the DBCP collaboration is executed. Interested parties are encouraged to contact the GDP to discuss upgrade opportunities.

Full access
Rick Lumpkin, Semyon A. Grodsky, Luca Centurioni, Marie-Helene Rio, James A. Carton, and Dongkyu Lee

Abstract

Satellite-tracked drifting buoys of the Global Drifter Program have drogues, centered at 15-m depth, to minimize direct wind forcing and Stokes drift. Drogue presence has historically been determined from submergence or tether strain records. However, recent studies have revealed that a significant fraction of drifters believed to be drogued have actually lost their drogues, a problem that peaked in the mid-2000s before the majority of drifters in the global array switched from submergence to tether strain sensors. In this study, a methodology is applied to the data to automatically reanalyze drogue presence based on anomalous downwind ageostrophic motion. Results indicate that the downwind slip of undrogued drifters is approximately 50% higher than previously believed. The reanalyzed results no longer exhibit the dramatic and spurious interannual variations seen in the original data. These results, along with information from submergence/tether strain and transmission frequency variations, are now being used to conduct a systematic manual reevaluation of drogue presence for each drifter in the post-1992 dataset.

Full access
Nikolai Maximenko, Peter Niiler, Luca Centurioni, Marie-Helene Rio, Oleg Melnichenko, Don Chambers, Victor Zlotnicki, and Boris Galperin

Abstract

Presented here are three mean dynamic topography maps derived with different methodologies. The first method combines sea level observed by the high-accuracy satellite radar altimetry with the geoid model of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), which has recently measured the earth’s gravity with unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy. The second one synthesizes near-surface velocities from a network of ocean drifters, hydrographic profiles, and ocean winds sorted according to the horizontal scales. In the third method, these global datasets are used in the context of the ocean surface momentum balance. The second and third methods are used to improve accuracy of the dynamic topography on fine space scales poorly resolved in the first method. When they are used to compute a multiyear time-mean global ocean surface circulation on a 0.5° horizontal resolution, both contain very similar, new small-scale midocean current patterns. In particular, extensions of western boundary currents appear narrow and strong despite temporal variability and exhibit persistent meanders and multiple branching. Also, the locations of the velocity concentrations in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current become well defined. Ageostrophic velocities reveal convergent zones in each subtropical basin. These maps present a new context in which to view the continued ocean monitoring with in situ instruments and satellites.

Full access
F. Martin Ralph, Forest Cannon, Vijay Tallapragada, Christopher A. Davis, James D. Doyle, Florian Pappenberger, Aneesh Subramanian, Anna M. Wilson, David A. Lavers, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Jennifer S. Haase, Luca Centurioni, Bruce Ingleby, Jonathan J. Rutz, Jason M. Cordeira, Minghua Zheng, Chad Hecht, Brian Kawzenuk, and Luca Delle Monache

Abstract

Water management and flood control are major challenges in the western United States. They are heavily influenced by atmospheric river (AR) storms that produce both beneficial water supply and hazards; for example, 84% of all flood damages in the West (up to 99% in key areas) are associated with ARs. However, AR landfall forecast position errors can exceed 200 km at even 1-day lead time and yet many watersheds are <100 km across, which contributes to issues such as the 2017 Oroville Dam spillway incident and regularly to large flood forecast errors. Combined with the rise of wildfires and deadly post-wildfire debris flows, such as Montecito (2018), the need for better AR forecasts is urgent. Atmospheric River Reconnaissance (AR Recon) was developed as a research and operations partnership to address these needs. It combines new observations, modeling, data assimilation, and forecast verification methods to improve the science and predictions of landfalling ARs. ARs over the northeast Pacific are measured using dropsondes from up to three aircraft simultaneously. Additionally, airborne radio occultation is being tested, and drifting buoys with pressure sensors are deployed. AR targeting and data collection methods have been developed, assimilation and forecast impact experiments are ongoing, and better understanding of AR dynamics is emerging. AR Recon is led by the Center for Western Weather and Water Extremes and NWS/NCEP. The effort’s core partners include the U.S. Navy, U.S. Air Force, NCAR, ECMWF, and multiple academic institutions. AR Recon is included in the “National Winter Season Operations Plan” to support improved outcomes for emergency preparedness and water management in the West.

Full access
Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Emily Shroyer, Amit Tandon, M. Ravichandran, Debasis Sengupta, S. U. P. Jinadasa, Harindra J. S. Fernando, Neeraj Agrawal, K. Arulananthan, G. S. Bhat, Mark Baumgartner, Jared Buckley, Luca Centurioni, Patrick Conry, J. Thomas Farrar, Arnold L. Gordon, Verena Hormann, Ewa Jarosz, Tommy G. Jensen, Shaun Johnston, Matthias Lankhorst, Craig M. Lee, Laura S. Leo, Iossif Lozovatsky, Andrew J. Lucas, Jennifer Mackinnon, Amala Mahadevan, Jonathan Nash, Melissa M. Omand, Hieu Pham, Robert Pinkel, Luc Rainville, Sanjiv Ramachandran, Daniel L. Rudnick, Sutanu Sarkar, Uwe Send, Rashmi Sharma, Harper Simmons, Kathleen M. Stafford, Louis St. Laurent, Karan Venayagamoorthy, Ramasamy Venkatesan, William J. Teague, David W. Wang, Amy F. Waterhouse, Robert Weller, and Caitlin B. Whalen

Abstract

Air–Sea Interactions in the Northern Indian Ocean (ASIRI) is an international research effort (2013–17) aimed at understanding and quantifying coupled atmosphere–ocean dynamics of the Bay of Bengal (BoB) with relevance to Indian Ocean monsoons. Working collaboratively, more than 20 research institutions are acquiring field observations coupled with operational and high-resolution models to address scientific issues that have stymied the monsoon predictability. ASIRI combines new and mature observational technologies to resolve submesoscale to regional-scale currents and hydrophysical fields. These data reveal BoB’s sharp frontal features, submesoscale variability, low-salinity lenses and filaments, and shallow mixed layers, with relatively weak turbulent mixing. Observed physical features include energetic high-frequency internal waves in the southern BoB, energetic mesoscale and submesoscale features including an intrathermocline eddy in the central BoB, and a high-resolution view of the exchange along the periphery of Sri Lanka, which includes the 100-km-wide East India Coastal Current (EICC) carrying low-salinity water out of the BoB and an adjacent, broad northward flow (∼300 km wide) that carries high-salinity water into BoB during the northeast monsoon. Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) observations during the decaying phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) permit the study of multiscale atmospheric processes associated with non-MJO phenomena and their impacts on the marine boundary layer. Underway analyses that integrate observations and numerical simulations shed light on how air–sea interactions control the ABL and upper-ocean processes.

Full access