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Alan Shapiro, Petra M. Klein, Sean C. Arms, David Bodine, and Matthew Carney

The Lake Thunderbird Micronet is a dense network of environmental sensors and a meteorological tower situated on ~10 acres of rural land in central Oklahoma. The Micronet was established in the spring of 2002 as part of a grassroots effort by a team of faculty and researchers at the University of Oklahoma to provide unique training and research opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students in meteorology and related environmental sciences. The history and design of the Micronet and use of the Micronet in undergraduate and graduate student training and research are described. Examples of interesting phenomena sampled at the Micronet are also presented.

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K. E. Garman, K. A. Hill, P. Wyss, M. Carlsen, J. R. Zimmerman, B. H. Stirm, T. Q. Carney, R. Santini, and P. B. Shepson


Although the ability to measure vertical eddy fluxes of gases from aircraft platforms represents an important capability to obtain spatially resolved data, accurate and reliable determination of the turbulent vertical velocity presents a great challenge. A nine-hole hemispherical probe known as the “Best Air Turbulence Probe” (often abbreviated as the “BAT Probe”) is frequently used in aircraft-based flux studies to sense the airflow angles and velocity relative to the aircraft. Instruments such as inertial navigation and global positioning systems allow the measured airflow to be converted into the three-dimensional wind velocity relative to the earth’s surface by taking into account the aircraft’s velocity and orientation. Calibration of the aircraft system has previously been performed primarily through in-flight experiments, where calibration coefficients were determined by performing various flight maneuvers. However, a rigorous test of the BAT Probe in a wind tunnel has not been previously undertaken.

The authors summarize the results of a complement of low-speed wind tunnel tests and in-flight calibrations for the aircraft–BAT Probe combination. Two key factors are addressed in this paper: The first is the correction of systematic error arising from airflow measurements with a noncalibrated BAT Probe. The second is the instrumental precision in measuring the vertical component of wind from the integrated aircraft-based wind measurement system. The wind tunnel calibration allows one to ascertain the extent to which the BAT Probe airflow measurements depart from a commonly used theoretical potential flow model and to correct for systematic errors that would be present if only the potential flow model were used. The precision in the determined vertical winds was estimated by propagating the precision of the BAT Probe data (determined from the wind tunnel study) and the inertial measurement precision (determined from in-flight tests). The precision of the vertical wind measurement for spatial scales larger than approximately 2 m is independent of aircraft flight speed over the range of airspeeds studied, and the 1σ precision is approximately 0.03 m s−1.

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P. Klein, T. A. Bonin, J. F. Newman, D. D. Turner, P. B. Chilson, C. E. Wainwright, W. G. Blumberg, S. Mishra, M. Carney, E. P. Jacobsen, S. Wharton, and R. K. Newsom


This paper presents an overview of the Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE), which included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was conducted as a collaborative effort between the University of Oklahoma (OU), the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the ARM program. LABLE can be considered unique in that it was designed as a multiphase, low-cost, multiagency collaboration. Graduate students served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments aimed at examining boundary layer processes.

The main objective of LABLE was to study turbulent phenomena in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere over heterogeneous terrain using a variety of novel atmospheric profiling techniques. Several instruments from OU and LLNL were deployed to augment the suite of in situ and remote sensing instruments at the ARM site. The complementary nature of the deployed instruments with respect to resolution and height coverage provides a near-complete picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper provides an overview of the experiment including 1) instruments deployed, 2) sampling strategies, 3) parameters observed, and 4) student involvement. To illustrate these components, the presented results focus on one particular aspect of LABLE: namely, the study of the nocturnal boundary layer and the formation and structure of nocturnal low-level jets. During LABLE, low-level jets were frequently observed and they often interacted with mesoscale atmospheric disturbances such as frontal passages.

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H. J. S. Fernando, J. Mann, J. M. L. M. Palma, J. K. Lundquist, R. J. Barthelmie, M. Belo-Pereira, W. O. J. Brown, F. K. Chow, T. Gerz, C. M. Hocut, P. M. Klein, L. S. Leo, J. C. Matos, S. P. Oncley, S. C. Pryor, L. Bariteau, T. M. Bell, N. Bodini, M. B. Carney, M. S. Courtney, E. D. Creegan, R. Dimitrova, S. Gomes, M. Hagen, J. O. Hyde, S. Kigle, R. Krishnamurthy, J. C. Lopes, L. Mazzaro, J. M. T. Neher, R. Menke, P. Murphy, L. Oswald, S. Otarola-Bustos, A. K. Pattantyus, C. Veiga Rodrigues, A. Schady, N. Sirin, S. Spuler, E. Svensson, J. Tomaszewski, D. D. Turner, L. van Veen, N. Vasiljević, D. Vassallo, S. Voss, N. Wildmann, and Y. Wang


A grand challenge from the wind energy industry is to provide reliable forecasts on mountain winds several hours in advance at microscale (∼100 m) resolution. This requires better microscale wind-energy physics included in forecasting tools, for which field observations are imperative. While mesoscale (∼1 km) measurements abound, microscale processes are not monitored in practice nor do plentiful measurements exist at this scale. After a decade of preparation, a group of European and U.S. collaborators conducted a field campaign during 1 May–15 June 2017 in Vale Cobrão in central Portugal to delve into microscale processes in complex terrain. This valley is nestled within a parallel double ridge near the town of Perdigão with dominant wind climatology normal to the ridges, offering a nominally simple yet natural setting for fundamental studies. The dense instrument ensemble deployed covered a ∼4 km × 4 km swath horizontally and ∼10 km vertically, with measurement resolutions of tens of meters and seconds. Meteorological data were collected continuously, capturing multiscale flow interactions from synoptic to microscales, diurnal variability, thermal circulation, turbine wake and acoustics, waves, and turbulence. Particularly noteworthy are the extensiveness of the instrument array, space–time scales covered, use of leading-edge multiple-lidar technology alongside conventional tower and remote sensors, fruitful cross-Atlantic partnership, and adaptive management of the campaign. Preliminary data analysis uncovered interesting new phenomena. All data are being archived for public use.

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