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J. Verlinde, B. D. Zak, M. D. Shupe, M. D. Ivey, and K. Stamnes
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A. Manderson, M. D. Rayson, E. Cripps, M. Girolami, J. P. Gosling, M. Hodkiewicz, G. N. Ivey, and N. L. Jones


We present a statistical method for reconstructing continuous background density profiles that embeds incomplete measurements and a physically intuitive density stratification model within a Bayesian hierarchal framework. A double hyperbolic tangent function is used as a parametric density stratification model that captures various pycnocline structures in the upper ocean and offers insight into several density profile characteristics (e.g., pycnocline depth). The posterior distribution is used to quantify uncertainty and is estimated using recent advances in Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Temporally evolving posterior distributions of density profile characteristics, isopycnal heights, and nonlinear ocean process models for internal gravity waves are presented as examples of how uncertainty propagates through models dependent on the density stratification. The results show 0.95 posterior interval widths that ranged from 2.5% to 4% of the expected values for the linear internal wave phase speed and 15%–40% for the nonlinear internal wave steepening parameter. The data, collected over a year from a through-the-column mooring, and code, implemented in the software package Stan, accompany the article.

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J. H. Mather, T. P. Ackerman, W. E. Clements, F. J. Barnes, M. D. Ivey, L. D. Hatfield, and R. M. Reynolds

The interaction of clouds and radiation is a particularly difficult issue in the study of climate change. Clouds have a large impact on the earth's radiation budget but the range of spatial and temporal scales and the complexity of the physical processes associated with clouds made these interactions difficult to simulate. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program was established to improve the understanding of the interaction of radiation with the atmosphere with a particular emphasis on the effects of clouds. To continue its role of providing data for the study of these interactions, the ARM program deployed an Atmospheric Radiation and Cloud Station (ARCS) in the tropical western Pacific. This site began operation in October 1996. The tropical western Pacific is a very important climatic region. It is characterized by strong solar heating, high water vapor concentrations, and active convection. The ARCS is equipped with a comprehensive suite of instruments for measuring surface radiation fluxes and properties of the atmospheric state and is intended to operate for the next 10 years. The ARCS is an integrated unit that includes a data management system, a site monitor and control system, an external communications system, redundant electrical power systems, and containers that provide shelter for the equipment as well as work space for site operators, technicians, and visiting scientists. The dataset the ARCS produces will be invaluable in studying issues related to clouds and radiation in the Tropics. The site is located in Manus Province, Papua New Guinea, at 2.060°S, 147.425°E, 300 km north of the island of New Guinea. Two more ARCS are planned for deployment across the tropical Pacific.

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J. Verlinde, J. Y. Harrington, G. M. McFarquhar, V. T. Yannuzzi, A. Avramov, S. Greenberg, N. Johnson, G. Zhang, M. R. Poellot, J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, E. W. Eloranta, B. D. Zak, A. J. Prenni, J. S. Daniel, G. L. Kok, D. C. Tobin, R. Holz, K. Sassen, D. Spangenberg, P. Minnis, T. P. Tooman, M. D. Ivey, S. J. Richardson, C. P. Bahrmann, M. Shupe, P. J. DeMott, A. J. Heymsfield, and R. Schofield

The Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was conducted from 27 September through 22 October 2004 over the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) on the North Slope of Alaska. The primary objectives were to collect a dataset suitable to study interactions between microphysics, dynamics, and radiative transfer in mixed-phase Arctic clouds, and to develop/evaluate cloud property retrievals from surface-and satellite-based remote sensing instruments. Observations taken during the 1977/98 Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment revealed that Arctic clouds frequently consist of one (or more) liquid layers precipitating ice. M-PACE sought to investigate the physical processes of these clouds by utilizing two aircraft (an in situ aircraft to characterize the microphysical properties of the clouds and a remote sensing aircraft to constraint the upwelling radiation) over the ACRF site on the North Slope of Alaska. The measurements successfully documented the microphysical structure of Arctic mixed-phase clouds, with multiple in situ profiles collected in both single- and multilayer clouds over two ground-based remote sensing sites. Liquid was found in clouds with cloud-top temperatures as cold as −30°C, with the coldest cloud-top temperature warmer than −40°C sampled by the aircraft. Remote sensing instruments suggest that ice was present in low concentrations, mostly concentrated in precipitation shafts, although there are indications of light ice precipitation present below the optically thick single-layer clouds. The prevalence of liquid down to these low temperatures potentially could be explained by the relatively low measured ice nuclei concentrations.

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