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W. E. Bardsley and M. M. Khatep

Abstract

Asymptotic extreme-value theory is used as the basis of a stochastic model which predicts aspects of the freezing behavior of supercooled water droplets. The model gives a general theoretical base to an earlier empirical function relating droplet volume to droplet freezing temperature. At the same time, the model indicates that the established empirical relation is only one of three possible functions linking droplet volume and temperature of freezing.

The free functions arise as a consequence of three possible extreme-value distributions of droplet freezing temperatures, and the form of each function predicts the type and parameter values of the distributions concerned. The proposed model is amenable to rigorous experimental verification since both the distribution type and parameter values can be estimated independently from droplet freezing data.

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M. M. Khatep, B. B. Fitzharris, and W. E. Bardsley

Abstract

The mean water vapor transfer of the Southwest Pacific, as determined from radiosonde records near the 170°E meridional transect, is computed for the 1960–73 period. Emphasis is placed on defining average patterns, then examining variations that arise during the wettest and driest years and seasons in New Zealand over that period. Over the midlatitudes, the mean transfer is predominantly from the west, and most developed in summer. Over the subtropics, the mean summer transfer is predominantly from the north or northeast, but in winter a northwest flow prevails. Patterns of water vapor transfer during wet and dry periods over New Zealand differ more in direction than in magnitude, with the subtropical easterlies extending farther poleward during wet periods, especially in summer.

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