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W. Feng, M. P. Chipperfield, H. K. Roscoe, J. J. Remedios, A. M. Waterfall, G. P. Stiller, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, and D.-Y. Wang

Abstract

An offline 3D chemical transport model (CTM) has been used to study the evolution of the Antarctic ozone hole during the sudden warming event of 2002 and to compare it with similar simulations for 2000. The CTM has a detailed stratospheric chemistry scheme and was forced by ECMWF and Met Office analyses. Both sets of meteorological analyses permit the CTM to produce a good simulation of the evolution of the 2002 vortex and its breakup, based on O3 comparisons with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) column data, sonde data, and first results from the Environmental Satellite–Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (ENVISAT–MIPAS) instrument. The ozone chemical loss rates in the polar lower stratosphere in September 2002 were generally less than in 2000, because of the smaller average active chlorine, although around the time of the warming, the largest vortex chemical loss rates were similar to those in 2000 (i.e., −2.6 DU day−1 between 12 and 26 km). However, the disturbed vortex of 2002 caused a somewhat larger influence of polar processing on Southern Hemisphere (SH) midlatitudes in September. Overall, the calculations show that the average SH chemical O3 loss (poleward of 30°S) by September was ∼20 DU less in 2002 compared with 2000. A significant contribution to the much larger observed polar O3 column in September 2002 was due to the enhanced descent at the vortex edge and increased horizontal transport, associated with the distorted vortex.

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V. Eyring, N. R. P. Harris, M. Rex, T. G. Shepherd, D. W. Fahey, G. T. Amanatidis, J. Austin, M. P. Chipperfield, M. Dameris, P. M. De F. Forster, A. Gettelman, H. F. Graf, T. Nagashima, P. A. Newman, S. Pawson, M. J. Prather, J. A. Pyle, R. J. Salawitch, B. D. Santer, and D. W. Waugh

Accurate and reliable predictions and an understanding of future changes in the stratosphere are major aspects of the subject of climate change. Simulating the interaction between chemistry and climate is of particular importance, because continued increases in greenhouse gases and a slow decrease in halogen loading are expected. These both influence the abundance of stratospheric ozone. In recent years a number of coupled chemistry–climate models (CCMs) with different levels of complexity have been developed. They produce a wide range of results concerning the timing and extent of ozone-layer recovery. Interest in reducing this range has created a need to address how the main dynamical, chemical, and physical processes that determine the long-term behavior of ozone are represented in the models and to validate these model processes through comparisons with observations and other models. A set of core validation processes structured around four major topics (transport, dynamics, radiation, and stratospheric chemistry and microphysics) has been developed. Each process is associated with one or more model diagnostics and with relevant datasets that can be used for validation. This approach provides a coherent framework for validating CCMs and can be used as a basis for future assessments. Similar efforts may benefit other modeling communities with a focus on earth science research as their models increase in complexity.

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Neal Butchart, I. Cionni, V. Eyring, T. G. Shepherd, D. W. Waugh, H. Akiyoshi, J. Austin, C. Brühl, M. P. Chipperfield, E. Cordero, M. Dameris, R. Deckert, S. Dhomse, S. M. Frith, R. R. Garcia, A. Gettelman, M. A. Giorgetta, D. E. Kinnison, F. Li, E. Mancini, C. McLandress, S. Pawson, G. Pitari, D. A. Plummer, E. Rozanov, F. Sassi, J. F. Scinocca, K. Shibata, B. Steil, and W. Tian

Abstract

The response of stratospheric climate and circulation to increasing amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone recovery in the twenty-first century is analyzed in simulations of 11 chemistry–climate models using near-identical forcings and experimental setup. In addition to an overall global cooling of the stratosphere in the simulations (0.59 ± 0.07 K decade−1 at 10 hPa), ozone recovery causes a warming of the Southern Hemisphere polar lower stratosphere in summer with enhanced cooling above. The rate of warming correlates with the rate of ozone recovery projected by the models and, on average, changes from 0.8 to 0.48 K decade−1 at 100 hPa as the rate of recovery declines from the first to the second half of the century. In the winter northern polar lower stratosphere the increased radiative cooling from the growing abundance of GHGs is, in most models, balanced by adiabatic warming from stronger polar downwelling. In the Antarctic lower stratosphere the models simulate an increase in low temperature extremes required for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation, but the positive trend is decreasing over the twenty-first century in all models. In the Arctic, none of the models simulates a statistically significant increase in Arctic PSCs throughout the twenty-first century. The subtropical jets accelerate in response to climate change and the ozone recovery produces a westward acceleration of the lower-stratospheric wind over the Antarctic during summer, though this response is sensitive to the rate of recovery projected by the models. There is a strengthening of the Brewer–Dobson circulation throughout the depth of the stratosphere, which reduces the mean age of air nearly everywhere at a rate of about 0.05 yr decade−1 in those models with this diagnostic. On average, the annual mean tropical upwelling in the lower stratosphere (∼70 hPa) increases by almost 2% decade−1, with 59% of this trend forced by the parameterized orographic gravity wave drag in the models. This is a consequence of the eastward acceleration of the subtropical jets, which increases the upward flux of (parameterized) momentum reaching the lower stratosphere in these latitudes.

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