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P. Flament and M. Sawyer

Abstract

The thermohaline response of the ocean to a short (10 h) but intense (95 mm) nighttime rainfall event was observed during a transit through the ITCZ. Two CTD profiles and shipboard measurements of air–sea fluxes were consistent with the assumption that rain temperature equals the wet-bulb temperature, within measurement errors. Although the net freshwater input and the net heat loss inferred from the TS characteristics of the surface layer were ∼30% smaller than those obtained by integrating the measured air–sea fluxes, owing to different spatial sampling, inherent limitations of rain measurement from ship, and contamination by internal waves, the two independent estimates of the net heat deficit agreed remarkably well, within 2.4%, when expressed per unit mass of rain (∼72kj kg−1). The heat flux due to the temperature of the rain accounted for about 40% of the net heat flux during rain, and therefore cannot be neglected.

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P. Flament, J. Firing, M. Sawyer, and C. Trefois

Abstract

Intense diurnal warming of the ocean surface was observed in April 1982 off California, using a combination of mooring, hydrographic, and satellite infrared and satellite pigment measurements. The event corresponded to a spatial and temooral minimum of the wind stress. The diurnal surface temperature amplitude exceeded 6.6°C locally despite a 490-nm optical depth of 20 m, suggesting that phytoplankton was not responsible for the shallow heat trapping. Coherent horizontal temperature streaks at least 50 km long and 4-8 km wide formedduring the subsequent erosion of the shallow warm layers. It is hypothesized that thcfr scale was set by planetary boundary-layer circulations.

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J. E. Harries, J. E. Russell, J. A. Hanafin, H. Brindley, J. Futyan, J. Rufus, S. Kellock, G. Matthews, R. Wrigley, A. Last, J. Mueller, R. Mossavati, J. Ashmall, E. Sawyer, D. Parker, M. Caldwell, P M. Allan, A. Smith, M. J. Bates, B. Coan, B. C. Stewart, D. R. Lepine, L. A. Cornwall, D. R. Corney, M. J. Ricketts, D. Drummond, D. Smart, R. Cutler, S. Dewitte, N. Clerbaux, L. Gonzalez, A. Ipe, C. Bertrand, A. Joukoff, D. Crommelynck, N. Nelms, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, G. Butcher, G. L. Smith, Z. P Szewczyk, P E. Mlynczak, A. Slingo, R. P. Allan, and M. A. Ringer

This paper reports on a new satellite sensor, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. GERB is designed to make the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. Measurements at high absolute accuracy of the reflected sunlight from the Earth, and the thermal radiation emitted by the Earth are made every 15 min, with a spatial resolution at the subsatellite point of 44.6 km (north–south) by 39.3 km (east–west). With knowledge of the incoming solar constant, this gives the primary forcing and response components of the top-of-atmosphere radiation. The first GERB instrument is an instrument of opportunity on Meteosat-8, a new spin-stabilized spacecraft platform also carrying the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared (SEVIRI) sensor, which is currently positioned over the equator at 3.5°W. This overview of the project includes a description of the instrument design and its preflight and in-flight calibration. An evaluation of the instrument performance after its first year in orbit, including comparisons with data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensors and with output from numerical models, are also presented. After a brief summary of the data processing system and data products, some of the scientific studies that are being undertaken using these early data are described. This marks the beginning of a decade or more of observations from GERB, as subsequent models will fly on each of the four Meteosat Second Generation satellites.

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