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Robert D. Hudson, Alexander D. Frolov, Marcos F. Andrade, and Melanie B. Follette

Abstract

Traditionally, studies in the stratosphere using column ozone amount, ozone profiles, and dynamical variables at midlatitudes have centered on zonal averages of these quantities made over specific latitude bands. This is in sharp contrast to the studies made within the polar vortices where the average is made within regions defined by potential vorticity, a meteorological parameter. An analysis of the ozone field in the Northern Hemisphere outside of the polar vortex is presented in which it is shown that this field can also be separated into meteorological regimes. These regimes are defined as 1) the tropical regime, between the equator and the subtropical front; 2) the midlatitude regime, between the subtropical and polar fronts; 3) the polar regime, between the polar front and the polar vortex; and 4) the arctic regime, within the polar vortex. Within each regime the zonal daily mean total ozone value is relatively constant, with a clearly separate value for each regime. At the same time, the stratospheric ozone profiles are clearly distinguishable between regimes, each regime having a unique tropopause height. A midlatitude zonal average, whether of ozone profiles, total ozone, or dynamical variables, will depend on the relative mix of the respective values within each regime over the latitude range of the average. Because each regime has its own distinctive characteristic, these averages may not have physical significance.

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Heather Guy, Anton Seimon, L. Baker Perry, Bronwen L. Konecky, Maxwell Rado, Marcos Andrade, Mariusz Potocki, and Paul A. Mayewski

Abstract

The tropical Andes of southern Peru and northern Bolivia have several major mountain summits suitable for ice core paleoclimatic investigations. However, incomplete understanding of the controls on the isotopic (δD, δ 18O) composition of precipitation and a paucity of field observations in this region continue to limit ice-core-based paleoclimate reconstructions. This study examines four years of daily observations of δD and δ 18O in precipitation from a citizen scientist network on the northeastern margin of the Altiplano, to identify controls on the subseasonal spatiotemporal variability in δ 18O during the wet season (November–April). These data provide new insights into modern δ 18O variability at high spatial and temporal scales. We identify a regionally coherent subseasonal signal in precipitation δ 18O featuring alternating periods of high and low δ 18O of 9–27-day duration. This signal reflects variability in precipitation delivery driven by synoptic conditions and closely relates to variations in the strength of the South American low-level jet and moisture availability over the study area. The annual layer of snowpack on the Quelccaya Ice Cap observed in the subsequent dry season retains this subseasonal signal, allowing the development of a snow-pit age model based on precipitation δ 18O measurements, and demonstrating how synoptic variability is transmitted from the atmosphere to mountaintop snowpacks along the Altiplano’s eastern margin. This result improves our understanding of the hydrometeorological processes governing δ 18O and δD in tropical Andean precipitation and has implications for improving paleoclimate reconstructions from tropical Andean ice cores and other paleoclimate records.

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Marcos Andrade-Flores, Nestor Rojas, Megan L. Melamed, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Michel Grutter, Laura Dawidowski, Juan Carlos Antuña-Marrero, Carlos Rudamas, Laura Gallardo, Ruben Mamani-Paco, Maria de Fatima Andrade, and Nicolas Huneeus

Abstract

In 2013, the international Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (iCACGP) and the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Project Americas Working Group (iCACGP/IGAC AWG) was formed to build a cohesive network and foster the next generation of atmospheric scientists with the goal of contributing to a scientific community focused on building collective knowledge for the Americas. The Latin America–Caribbean (LAC) region shares common history, culture, and socioeconomic issues but, at the same time, it is highly diverse in its physical and human geography. The LAC region is unique because approximately 80% of its population lives in urban areas, resulting in high-density hotspots of urbanization and vast unpopulated rural areas. In recent years, most countries of the region have experienced rapid growth in population and industrialization as their economies emerge. The rapid urbanization, the associated increases in mobile and industrial sources, and the growth of the agricultural activities related to biomass burning have degraded air quality in certain areas of the LAC region. Air pollution has negative implications for human health, ecosystems, and climate. In addition, air pollution and the warming caused by greenhouse gases could impact the melting of Andean glaciers, an important source of freshwater. To better understand the links between air pollution and climate, it is necessary to increase the number of atmospheric scientists and improve our observational, analytical, and modeling capacities. This requires sustained and prioritized funding as well as stronger collaboration within the LAC region.

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Jason L. Endries, L. Baker Perry, Sandra E. Yuter, Anton Seimon, Marcos Andrade-Flores, Ronald Winkelmann, Nelson Quispe, Maxwell Rado, Nilton Montoya, Fernando Velarde, and Sandro Arias

Abstract

This study used the first detailed radar measurements of the vertical structure of precipitation obtained in the central Andes of southern Peru and Bolivia to investigate the diurnal cycle and vertical structure of precipitation and melting-layer heights in the tropical Andes. Vertically pointing 24.1-GHz Micro Rain Radars in Cusco, Peru (3350 m MSL, August 2014–February 2015), and La Paz, Bolivia (3440 m MSL, October 2015–February 2017), provided continuous 1-min profiles of reflectivity and Doppler velocity. The time–height data enabled the determination of precipitation timing, melting-layer heights, and the identification of convective and stratiform precipitation features. Rawinsonde data, hourly observations of meteorological variables, and satellite and reanalysis data provided additional insight into the characteristics of these precipitation events. The radar data revealed a diurnal cycle with frequent precipitation and higher rain rates in the afternoon and overnight. Short periods with strong convective cells occurred in several storms. Longer-duration events with stratiform precipitation structures were more common at night than in the afternoon. Backward air trajectories confirmed previous work indicating an Amazon basin origin of storm moisture. For the entire dataset, median melting-layer heights were above the altitude of nearby glacier termini approximately 17% of the time in Cusco and 30% of the time in La Paz, indicating that some precipitation was falling as rain rather than snow on nearby glacier surfaces. During the 2015–16 El Niño, almost half of storms in La Paz had melting layers above 5000 m MSL.

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