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Marie Sanderson

Abstract

Methods of measuring precipitation vary from country to country. Consequently, the comparability of precipitation data along international borders is questionable. The present paper compares 5 years of precipitation data at Windsor, Ontario, using the standard Canadian and United States methods of measuring precipitation. Monthly rain amounts are very similar, but substantial differences exist in snow measurement. The Canadian method appears to overestimate precipitation from snowfall.

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Marie Sanderson

In this paper attempts are made to trace the ways in which climates were shown on maps of the world beginning with the Greek philosopher Pythagoras and ending with Koeppen. Much of the information was obtained by examining original maps in the Clements Library of the University of Michigan. It is concluded that the most-used climate classification of climates today, that of Koeppen, derives from the five climate zones of the ancient Greeks and that the world is ready for a new classification.

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Marie Sanderson
and
Richard Gorski

Abstract

Most recent research in urban precipitation has suggested that the presence of the city itself causes increased precipitation. The present paper presents the results of five years of precipitation measurement from an international network of raingages in Windsor-Detroit. Increased precipitation downwind appeared to be the case only in summer. The number of precipitation days and the number of heavy precipitation days were greatest in the southwest urban area and decreased downwind.

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Marie Sanderson
,
Imaiyavalli Kumanan
,
Terry Tanguay
, and
William Schertzer

Abstract

In the present study, a beginning is made into the investigation of the effect of the urban area on the microclimate of Detroit-Windsor. Diurnal and seasonal urban-rural temperature differences were investigated using three-hourly temperature data for a 10-year period for City, Metropolitan and Windsor airports. Maximum differences were observed in early morning hours and minimum or zero differences at midday. Seasonally, maximum differences were observed in August–October and minimum differences in January–March. The differences between urban and rural atmospheric transmissivity ratios were investigated for clear winter days using a Kipp and Zonen pyranometer and a model to predict incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Urban ratios averaged 9% less, and under calm conditions, reached 25% less than in adjacent rural areas. Data from the South Eastern Michigan Council of Governments precipitation network in the Detroit area were used in a comparison with regional seasonal precipitation patterns. Although the urban area or microscale precipitation pattern did not appear to differ on an annual basis from the regional precipitation pattern, on a seasonal basis Detroit received less precipitation than the surrounding rural areas in autumn and winter and about 20% more in summer.

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