Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Martin Sharp x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Martin Sharp and Libo Wang

Abstract

Climatologies and annual anomaly patterns (2000–04) of melt season duration and dates of melt onset/freeze-up on Eurasian Arctic ice masses were derived from Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) backscatter data. Severnaya Zemlya, Russia, has later melt onset, earlier freeze-up, and shorter melt seasons than Svalbard, Norway/Novaya Zemlya, Russia. In all three archipelagos 2001 was the longest melt season and 2000 was the shortest. Anomalously long (short) melt seasons on Svalbard were associated with negative (positive) sea ice concentration anomalies along the north coast in June and August. Annual mean melt duration was strongly correlated with the mean (June + August) NCEP–NCAR reanalysis 850-hPa air temperature, allowing reconstruction of melt durations for the period of 1948–2005. The 2000–04 pentad had the second or third longest mean melt duration of all pentads in the 1950–2004 epoch, while the 1950–54 pentad probably had the longest. Integration of these results with previous results from Greenland and the Canadian Arctic identifies 2002 as the longest melt season in the 2000–04 period across the Arctic as a whole, and 2001 as the shortest. Correlation of melt duration anomalies for 19 discrete regions identifies seven spatially coherent areas of the Arctic with common patterns of variability in annual melt duration.

Full access
Alex S. Gardner and Martin Sharp

Abstract

Variability in July mean surface air temperatures from 1963 to 2003 accounted for 62% of the variance in the regional annual glacier mass balance signal for the Canadian High Arctic. A regime shift to more negative regional glacier mass balance occurred between 1986 and 1987, and is linked to a coincident shift from lower to higher mean July air temperatures. Both the interannual changes and the regime shifts in regional glacier mass balance and July air temperatures are related to variations in the position and strength of the July circumpolar vortex. In years when the July vortex is “strong” and its center is located in the Western Hemisphere, positive mass balance anomalies prevail. In contrast, highly negative mass balance anomalies occur when the July circumpolar vortex is either weak or strong without elongation over the Canadian High Arctic, and its center is located in the Eastern Hemisphere. The occurrence of westerly positioned July vortices has decreased by 40% since 1987. The associated shift to a dominantly easterly positioned July vortex was associated with an increased frequency of tropospheric ridging over the Canadian High Arctic, higher surface air temperatures, and more negative regional glacier mass balance.

Full access
Shawn J. Marshall and Martin J. Sharp

Abstract

Near-surface temperature variability and net annual mass balance were monitored from May 2001 to April 2003 in a network of 25 sites on the Prince of Wales Ice Field, Ellesmere Island, Canada. The observational array spanned an area of 180 km by 120 km and ranged from 130 to 2010 m in altitude. Hourly, daily, and monthly average temperatures from the spatial array provide a record of mesoscale temperature variability on the ice field. The authors examine seasonal variations in the variance of monthly and daily temperature: free parameters in positive-degree-day melt models that are presently in use for modeling of glacier mass balance. An analysis of parameter space reveals that daily and seasonal temperature variability are suppressed in summer months (over a melting snow–ice surface), an effect that is important to include in melt modeling. In addition, average annual vertical gradients in near-surface temperature were −3.7°C km−1 in the 2-yr record, steepening to −4.4°C km−1 in the summer months. These gradients are less than the adiabatic lapse rates that are commonly adopted for extrapolation of sea level temperature to higher altitudes, with significant implications for modeling of snow and ice melt. Mass balance simulations for the ice field illustrate the sensitivity of melt models to different lapse rate and temperature parameterizations.

Full access
Alex S. Gardner, Martin J. Sharp, Roy M. Koerner, Claude Labine, Sarah Boon, Shawn J. Marshall, David O. Burgess, and David Lewis

Abstract

Distributed glacier surface melt models are often forced using air temperature fields that are either downscaled from climate models or reanalysis, or extrapolated from station measurements. Typically, the downscaling and/or extrapolation are performed using a constant temperature lapse rate, which is often taken to be the free-air moist adiabatic lapse rate (MALR: 6°–7°C km−1). To explore the validity of this approach, the authors examined altitudinal gradients in daily mean air temperature along six transects across four glaciers in the Canadian high Arctic. The dataset includes over 58 000 daily averaged temperature measurements from 69 sensors covering the period 1988–2007. Temperature lapse rates near glacier surfaces vary on both daily and seasonal time scales, are consistently lower than the MALR (ablation season mean: 4.9°C km−1), and exhibit strong regional covariance. A significant fraction of the daily variability in lapse rates is associated with changes in free-atmospheric temperatures (higher temperatures = lower lapse rates). The temperature fields generated by downscaling point location summit elevation temperatures to the glacier surface using temporally variable lapse rates are a substantial improvement over those generated using the static MALR. These findings suggest that lower near-surface temperature lapse rates can be expected under a warming climate and that the air temperature near the glacier surface is less sensitive to changes in the temperature of the free atmosphere than is generally assumed.

Full access
J. K. Andersen, Liss M. Andreassen, Emily H. Baker, Thomas J. Ballinger, Logan T. Berner, Germar H. Bernhard, Uma S. Bhatt, Jarle W. Bjerke, Jason E. Box, L. Britt, R. Brown, David Burgess, John Cappelen, Hanne H. Christiansen, B. Decharme, C. Derksen, D. S. Drozdov, Howard E. Epstein, L. M. Farquharson, Sinead L. Farrell, Robert S. Fausto, Xavier Fettweis, Vitali E. Fioletov, Bruce C. Forbes, Gerald V. Frost, Sebastian Gerland, Scott J. Goetz, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Edward Hanna, Inger Hanssen-Bauer, Stefan Hendricks, Iolanda Ialongo, K. Isaksen, Bjørn Johnsen, L. Kaleschke, A. L. Kholodov, Seong-Joong Kim, Jack Kohler, Zachary Labe, Carol Ladd, Kaisa Lakkala, Mark J. Lara, Bryant Loomis, Bartłomiej Luks, K. Luojus, Matthew J. Macander, G. V. Malkova, Kenneth D. Mankoff, Gloria L. Manney, J. M. Marsh, Walt Meier, Twila A. Moon, Thomas Mote, L. Mudryk, F. J. Mueter, Rolf Müller, K. E. Nyland, Shad O’Neel, James E. Overland, Don Perovich, Gareth K. Phoenix, Martha K. Raynolds, C. H. Reijmer, Robert Ricker, Vladimir E. Romanovsky, E. A. G. Schuur, Martin Sharp, Nikolai I. Shiklomanov, C. J. P. P. Smeets, Sharon L. Smith, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Marco Tedesco, Richard L. Thoman, J. T. Thorson, X. Tian-Kunze, Mary-Louise Timmermans, Hans Tømmervik, Mark Tschudi, Dirk van As, R. S. W. van de Wal, Donald A. Walker, John E. Walsh, Muyin Wang, Melinda Webster, Øyvind Winton, Gabriel J. Wolken, K. Wood, Bert Wouters, and S. Zador
Full access