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Masataka Murakami and Takayo Matsuo

Abstract

A new special sonde, the hydrometeor videosonde (HYVIS), has been developed to measure the vertical distribution of hydrometeors in clouds. The HYVIS has two small TV cameras that take pictures of hydrometeors (from 7 μm to 2 cm) collected on a film surface. The HYVIS and a rawinsonde are attached to the same balloon and launched into clouds. They transmit particle images and meteorological data over a 1.6 GHz microwave link to a ground station. The received particle image data are recorded on a VTR and simultaneously displayed on a TV monitor. At the same time meteorological data are printed out from a digital analyzer.

Observations have shown that the HYVIS provides high quality images of hydrometeors and is useful for studies of cloud microstructures.

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Roy M. Rasmussen, Ben C. Bernstein, Masataka Murakami, Greg Stossmeister, Jon Reisner, and Boba Stankov

Abstract

The mesoscale and microscale structure and evolution of a shallow, upslope cloud is described using observations obtained during the Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP) and model stimulations. The upslope cloud formed within a shallow arctic air mass that moved into the region east of the Rocky Mountains between 12 and 16 February and contained significant amounts of supercooled liquid water for nearly 30 h. Two distinct layers were evident in the cloud. The lower layer was near neutral stability (boundary layer air) and contained easterly upslope flow. The upper layer (frontal transition zone) was thermodynamically stable and contained southerly flow. Overlying the upslope cloud was a dry, southwesterly flow of 20–25 m s −1, resulting in strong wind shear near cloud top. Within 10 km of the Rocky Mountain barrier, easterly low-level flow was lifted up and over the mountains. The above-described kinematic and thermodynamic structure produced three distinct mechanisms leading to the production of supercooled liquid water: 1) upslope flow over the gently rising terrain leading into the Colorado Front Range, up the slopes of the Rocky Mountains and over local ridges, 2)upglide flow within a frontal transition zone, and 3) turbulent mixing in the boundary layer. Supercooled liquid water was also produced by 1) upward motion at the leading edge of three cold surges and 2) vertical motion produced by low-level convergence in the surface wind field. Large cloud droplets were present near the top of this cloud (approximately 50-µm diameter), which grew by a direct coalescence process into freezing drizzle in regions of the storm where the liquid water content was greater than 0.25 g m −3 and vertical velocity was at 10 cm s −1

Ice crystal concentrations greater than 1 L−1 were observed in the lower cloud layer containing boundary layer air when the top of the boundary layer air when the top of the boundary layer was colder than −12°C. The upper half of the cloud was ice-free despite temperatures as low as −15°C, resulting in long-lived supercooled liquid water in this region of the cloud.

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Elena S. Lobl, Kazumasa Aonashi, Brian Griffith, Christian Kummerow, Guosheng Liu, Masataka Murakami, and Thomas Wilheit

The “ Wakasa Bay Experiment” was conducted in order to refine error models for oceanic precipitation from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) measurements and to develop algorithms for snowfall. The NASA P-3 aircraft was equipped with microwave radiometers, covering a frequency range of 10.7–340 GHz, and radars at 13.4, 35.6, and 94 GHz, and was deployed to Yokota Air Base in Japan for flights from 14 January to 3 February 2003. For four flight days (27–30 January) a Gulfstream II aircraft provided by Core Research for Environmental Science and Technology (CREST), carrying an extensive cloud physics payload and a two-frequency (23.8 and 31.4 GHz) microwave radiometer, joined the P-3 for coordinated flights. The Gulfstream II aircraft was part of the “Winter Mesoscale Convective Systems Observations over the Sea of Japan in 2003” (“WMO-03”) field campaign sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST). Extensive data were taken, which addressed all of the experimental objectives. The data obtained with the NASA P-3 are available at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and they are available free of charge to all interested researchers.

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Andrea I. Flossmann, Michael Manton, Ali Abshaev, Roelof Bruintjes, Masataka Murakami, Thara Prabhakaran, and Zhanyu Yao

Abstract

This paper provides a summary of the assessment report of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Weather Modification that discusses recent progress on precipitation enhancement research. The progress has been underpinned by advances in our understanding of cloud processes and interactions between clouds and their environment, which, in turn, have been enabled by substantial developments in technical capabilities to both observe and simulate clouds from the microphysical to the mesoscale. We focus on the two cloud types most commonly seeded in the past: winter orographic cloud systems and convective cloud systems. A key issue for cloud seeding is the extension from cloud-scale research to water catchment–scale impacts on precipitation on the ground. Consequently, the requirements for the design, implementation, and evaluation of a catchment-scale precipitation enhancement campaign are discussed. The paper concludes by indicating the most important gaps in our knowledge. Some recommendations regarding the most urgent research topics are given to stimulate further research.

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Kenichi Kusunoki, Masataka Murakami, Mizuho Hoshimoto, Narihiro Orikasa, Yoshinori Yamada, Hakaru Mizuno, Kyosuke Hamazu, and Hideyuki Watanabe

Abstract

On 25 February 1999, on the western side of the central mountain range of Japan, orographic snow clouds had formed under conditions of weak cold advection due to a winter monsoon after a cyclonic storm. The data from Ka-band Doppler radar, microwave radiometer, hydrometeor videosondes, and 2D Grey imaging probe provided unique datasets that were used to analyze the evolution of meso- and microscale structures, especially ice and supercooled liquid water (SLW) evolutions associated with variations in surrounding conditions. In the present case, four stages were identified in the evolution of the clouds: stratiform (I), transition (II), shallow convective (III), and dissipating (IV). During stage I, substantial blocking of the low-level flow occurred. The echo top was relatively flat and the echo pattern was stratiform with a bright band. The clouds were considered to be almost glaciated, primarily by the deposition growth of ice crystals. The wind speed up the slope gradually increased in the latter half of stage I and reached maximum intensity at stage II. Simultaneously, the LWP increased and the hydrometeors observed at the surface and aloft indicated heavy riming by accretion of supercooled droplets. During stage III, the wind up the slope weakened and the clouds became shallower and more convective. Snowflakes and aggregated snow images detected frequently at the surface suggested that some of the mass in the precipitation was due to depositional growth, which is consistent with the clouds of low LWP [high ice water path (IWP)] during stage III. In stage IV, the clouds dissipated as a relatively warm/dry airflow from the south dominated during stable conditions. These results indicate that SLW was associated primarily with orographic lifting but not with convection. The dominance of SLW was reflected in the enhanced flow up the slope that should increase the upward air motion. The convective clouds showed only small amounts of SLW and an abundance of ice crystals.

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Kenichi Kusunoki, Masataka Murakami, Narihiro Orikasa, Mizuho Hoshimoto, Yoshinobu Tanaka, Yoshinori Yamada, Hakaru Mizuno, Kyosuke Hamazu, and Hideyuki Watanabe

Abstract

On 25 February 1999, due to a winter monsoon after a cyclonic storm, orographic snow clouds formed under conditions of weak cold advection on the western side of the central mountain range of Japan. In this study, the Ka-band Doppler radar and vehicle-mounted microwave radiometer and 2D-Grey imaging probe were used to obtain unique datasets for analyzing the spatial distributions of microphysical structures of the snow clouds at the windward slope. The liquid water path, number concentration of snow particles (0.1–6.4 mm diameter), and precipitation rate were found to be correlated with altitude. The greater concentration of larger particles tended to appear up the slope. The echo top was at about 2.5 km (−30 dBZ), and the relatively strong echo region (>−3 dBZ) appeared at 5 km up the slope and extended nearly parallel to the slope. According to the echo pattern, the ice water path increased with terrain height and reached the maximum intensity at about 14 km up the slope. These observations provide indirect evidence that terrain-induced updrafts lead to the generation and growth of supercooled cloud droplets and indicate that the riming process plays an important role in the growth of snow particles at higher altitudes. In this paper, it is confirmed that the abundance of supercooled liquid water (SLW) during intensified monsoon flow is due to larger water production rates caused by higher vertical velocities induced by topography. Furthermore, it can be shown that small-scale terrains enhance localized updrafts embedded within the larger-scale flow and have noticeable impact on SLW cloud distribution.

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Tetsu Sakai, Narihiro Orikasa, Tomohiro Nagai, Masataka Murakami, Kenichi Kusunoki, Kazumasa Mori, Akihiro Hashimoto, Takatsugu Matsumura, and Takashi Shibata

Abstract

Optical and microphysical properties of the upper clouds at an altitude range of 5–11 km were measured over Tsukuba, Japan, on 29–30 March 2004 using a ground-based Raman lidar and a balloon-borne hydrometeor videosonde (HYVIS). The Raman lidar measured the vertical distributions of the particle extinction coefficient, backscattering coefficients, depolarization ratio, and extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) at 532 nm; further, it measured the water vapor mixing ratio. The HYVIS measured the vertical distributions of the particle size, shape, cross-sectional area, and number concentration of the cloud particles by taking microscopic images. The HYVIS measurement showed that the cloud particles were ice crystals whose shapes were columnar, bulletlike, platelike, and irregular, and 7–400 μm in size. The Raman lidar measurement showed that the depolarization ratio ranged from 0% to 35% and the lidar ranged from 0.3 to 30 sr for the clouds in ice-saturated air. The comparison between the measured data and theoretical calculations of the cloud optical properties suggests that the observed variations in the depolarization ratio and lidar ratio were primarily due to the variation in the proportion of the horizontally oriented ice crystals in the clouds. The optical thickness of the cloud obtained from the lidar was about 2 times lower than that calculated from the HYVIS data, and the maximum extinction coefficient was about 5 times lower than the HYVIS data. The most probable reason for the differences is the horizontal inhomogeneities of the cloud properties between the measurements sites for the two instruments.

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Lulin Xue, Akihiro Hashimoto, Masataka Murakami, Roy Rasmussen, Sarah A. Tessendorf, Daniel Breed, Shaun Parkinson, Pat Holbrook, and Derek Blestrud

Abstract

A silver iodide (AgI) cloud-seeding parameterization has been implemented into the Thompson microphysics scheme of the Weather Research and Forecasting model to investigate glaciogenic cloud-seeding effects. The sensitivity of the parameterization to meteorological conditions, cloud properties, and seeding rates was examined by simulating two-dimensional idealized moist flow over a bell-shaped mountain. The results verified that this parameterization can reasonably simulate the physical processes of cloud seeding with the limitations of the constant cloud droplet concentration assumed in the scheme and the two-dimensional model setup. The results showed the following: 1) Deposition was the dominant nucleation mode of AgI from simulated aircraft seeding, whereas immersion freezing was the most active mode for ground-based seeding. Deposition and condensation freezing were also important for ground-based seeding. Contact freezing was the weakest nucleation mode for both ground-based and airborne seeding. 2) Diffusion and riming on AgI-nucleated ice crystals depleted vapor and liquid water, resulting in more ice-phase precipitation on the ground for all of the seeding cases relative to the control cases. Most of the enhancement came from vapor depletion. The relative enhancement by seeding ranged from 0.3% to 429% under various conditions. 3) The maximum local AgI activation ratio was 60% under optimum conditions. Under most seeding conditions, however, this ratio was between 0.02% and 2% in orographic clouds. 4) The seeding effect was inversely related to the natural precipitation efficiency but was positively related to seeding rates. 5) Ground-based seeding enhanced precipitation on the lee side of the mountain, whereas airborne seeding from lower flight tracks enhanced precipitation on the windward side of the mountain.

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Paul J. DeMott, Ottmar Möhler, Olaf Stetzer, Gabor Vali, Zev Levin, Markus D. Petters, Masataka Murakami, Thomas Leisner, Ulrich Bundke, Holger Klein, Zamin A. Kanji, Richard Cotton, Hazel Jones, Stefan Benz, Maren Brinkmann, Daniel Rzesanke, Harald Saathoff, Mathieu Nicolet, Atsushi Saito, Bjorn Nillius, Heinz Bingemer, Jonathan Abbatt, Karin Ardon, Eli Ganor, Dimitrios G. Georgakopoulos, and Clive Saunders

Understanding cloud and precipitation responses to variations in atmospheric aerosols remains an important research topic for improving the prediction of climate. Knowledge is most uncertain, and the potential impact on climate is largest with regard to how aerosols impact ice formation in clouds. In this paper, we show that research on atmospheric ice nucleation, including the development of new measurement systems, is occurring at a renewed and historically unparalleled level. A historical perspective is provided on the methods and challenges of measuring ice nuclei, and the various factors that led to a lull in research efforts during a nearly 20-yr period centered about 30 yr ago. Workshops played a major role in defining critical needs for improving measurements at that time and helped to guide renewed efforts. Workshops were recently revived for evaluating present research progress. We argue that encouraging progress has been made in the consistency of measurements using the present generation of ice nucleation instruments. Through comparison to laboratory cloud simulations, these ice nuclei measurements have provided increased confidence in our ability to quantify primary ice formation by atmospheric aerosols.

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