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  • Author or Editor: Matthew L. Walker McLinden x
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Matthew L. Walker McLinden, Lihua Li, Gerald M. Heymsfield, Michael Coon, and Amber Emory

Abstract

The NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center’s (GSFC’s) W-band (94 GHz) Cloud Radar System (CRS) has been comprehensively updated to modern solid-state and digital technology. This W-band (94 GHz) radar flies in nadir-pointing mode on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft, providing polarimetric reflectivity and Doppler measurements of clouds and precipitation. This paper describes the design and signal processing of the upgraded CRS. It includes details on the hardware upgrades (SSPA transmitter, antenna, and digital receiver) including a new reflectarray antenna and solid-state transmitter. It also includes algorithms, including internal loop-back calibration, external calibration using a direct relationship between volume reflectivity and the range-integrated backscatter of the ocean, and a modified staggered-PRF Doppler algorithm that is highly resistant to unfolding errors. Data samples obtained by upgraded CRS through recent NASA airborne science missions are provided.

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Charles N. Helms, Matthew L. Walker McLinden, Gerald M. Heymsfield, and Stephen R. Guimond

Abstract

The present study describes methods to reduce the uncertainty of velocity–azimuth display (VAD) wind and deformation retrievals from downward-pointing, conically scanning, airborne Doppler radars. These retrievals have important applications in data assimilation and real-time data processing. Several error sources for VAD retrievals are considered here, including violations to the underlying wind field assumptions, Doppler velocity noise, data gaps, temporal variability, and the spatial weighting function of the VAD retrieval. Specific to airborne VAD retrievals, we also consider errors produced due to the radar scans occurring while the instrument platform is in motion. While VAD retrievals are typically performed using data from a single antenna revolution, other strategies for selecting data can be used to reduce retrieval errors. Four such data selection strategies for airborne VAD retrievals are evaluated here with respect to their effects on the errors. These methods are evaluated using the second hurricane nature run numerical simulation, analytic wind fields, and observed Doppler radar radial velocities. The proposed methods are shown to reduce the median absolute error of the VAD wind retrievals, especially in the vicinity of deep convection embedded in stratiform precipitation. The median absolute error due to wind field assumption violations for the along-track and for the across-track wind is reduced from 0.36 to 0.08 m s−1 and from 0.35 to 0.24 m s−1, respectively. Although the study focuses on Doppler radars, the results are equally applicable to conically scanning Doppler lidars as well.

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