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Arthur Z. Loesch and Melinda Peng

Abstract

Spectral energetics associated with an N-wave system composed of a marginally unstable and N/1 neutral waves, interacting resonantly in triad configurations, are examined in the context of the two-layer baroclinic model. The unstable mode is found to dominate all allowable spectra at small initial energy levels. At larger initial energy levels this dominance persists only in the case of largest allowable spectra; otherwise, resonant interaction mechanism shifts the dominance to the neutral part of the spectrum. The shift occurs at lower initial energy levels and to a broader spectral range at higher values of internal rotational Froude number.

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Yamei Xu, Tim Li, and Melinda Peng

Abstract

The Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC) high-resolution global reanalysis dataset was analyzed to reveal precursor synoptic-scale disturbances related to tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the western North Pacific (WNP) during the 2008–09 typhoon seasons. A time filtering is applied to the data to isolate synoptic (3–10 day), quasi-biweekly (10–20 day), and intraseasonal (20–90 day) time-scale components. The results show that four types of precursor synoptic disturbances associated with TC genesis can be identified in the YOTC data. They are 1) Rossby wave trains associated with preexisting TC energy dispersion (TCED) (24%), 2) synoptic wave trains (SWTs) unrelated to TCED (32%), 3) easterly waves (EWs) (16%), and 4) a combination of either TCED-EW or SWT-EW (24%). The percentage of identifiable genesis events is higher than has been found in previous analyses.

Most of the genesis events occurred when atmospheric quasi-biweekly and intraseasonal oscillations are in an active phase, suggesting a large-scale control of low-frequency oscillations on TC formation in the WNP. For genesis events associated with SWT and EW, maximum vorticity was confined in the lower troposphere. During the formation of Jangmi (2008), maximum Rossby wave energy dispersion appeared in the middle troposphere. This differs from other TCED cases in which energy dispersion is strongest at low level. As a result, the midlevel vortex from Rossby wave energy dispersion grew faster during the initial development stage of Jangmi.

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Melinda S. Peng and R. T. Williams

Abstract

A two-scale expansion technique is used to study the barotropic instability of basic flows with slow streamwise variation. Disturbances in nonparallel flow possess properties that differ from those calculated from parallel flow theory. The difference, which is obtained at higher order in the parameter that measures the nonparallelism, depends on the first derivative of the parallel flow properties with respect to the streamwise direction. This higher order correction shifts the spatial growth rate profile for the nonparallel flow downstream relative to the spatial growth rate profile for parallel flow. These results are compared with a previous numerical study by Tupaz, Williams and Chang and some of their conclusions are modified.

Physically, the difference in the spatial instability for parallel and nonparallel flow is subject to two combined effects. The first is the lag effect discussed by Tupaz et al., which causes the disturbance structure to lag the parallel-flow solution structure in regions where the mean flow changes rapidly downstream. This causes the downstream shifting of the nonparallel growth rate profile. The second is related to the phase speed difference between the parallel and nonparallel flows. If the disturbance propagates faster than predicted by the parallel flow theory, the local spatial growth rate will be smaller than that calculated by the parallel flow and vice versa.

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Melinda S. Peng and Simon W. Chang

Abstract

Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) retrieved rainfall rates were assimilated into a limited-area numerical prediction model in an attempt to improve the initial analysis and forecast of a tropical cyclone. Typhoon Flo of 1990, which was observed in an intensive observation period of the Tropical Cyclone Motion Experiment-1990, was chosen for this study. The SSM/I retrieved rainfall rates within 888 km (8° latitude) of the storm center were incorporated into the initial fields by a reversed Kuo cumulus parameterization. In the procedure used here, the moisture field in the model is adjusted so that the model generates the SSM/I-observed rainfall rates. This scheme is applied through two different assimilation methods. The first method is based on a dynamic initialization in which the prediction model is integrated backward adiabatically to t = −6 h and then forward diabatically for 6 h to the initial time. During the diabatic forward integration, the SSM/I rainfall rates are incorporated using the reversed Kuo cumulus parameterization. The second method is a forward data assimilation integration starting from t = −12 h. From t = −6 h to t = 0, the SSM/I rainfall rates are incorporated, also using the reversed Kuo scheme. During this period, the momentum fields are relaxed to the initial (t = 0) analysis to reduce the initial position error generated during the preforecast integration. Five cases for which SSM/I overpasses were available were tested, including two cases before and three after Flo's recurvature. Forecasts at 48 h are compared with the actual storm track and intensifies estimated by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. For the five cases tested, the assimilation of SSM/I retrieved rainfall rates reduced the average 48-h forecast distance error from 239 km in the control runs to 81 km in the assimilation experiments. It is postulated that the large positive impact was a consequence of the improved forecast intensity and speed of the typhoon when the SSM/I rain-rate data were assimilated.

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Melinda S. Peng and Carolyn A. Reynolds

Abstract

Singular vector (SV) sensitivity, calculated using the adjoint model of the U.S. Navy Operation Global Atmosphere Prediction System (NOGAPS), is used to study the dynamics associated with tropical cyclone evolution. For each model-predicted tropical cyclone, SVs are constructed that optimize perturbation energy within a 20° by 20° latitude/longitude box centered on the 48-h forecast position of the cyclone. The initial SVs indicate regions where the 2-day forecast of the storm is very sensitive to changes in the analysis. Composites of the SVs for straight-moving cyclones and non-straight-moving cyclones that occurred in the Northern Hemisphere during its summer season in 2003 are examined. For both groups, the initial-time SV sensitivity exhibits a maximum within an annulus approximately 500 km from the center of the storms, in the region where the potential vorticity gradient of the vortex first changes sign. In the azimuthal direction, the composite initial-time SV maximum for the straight-moving group is located in the rear right quadrant with respect to the storm motion. The composite based on the non-straight-moving cyclones does not have a preferred quadrant in the vicinity of the storms and has larger amplitude away from the cyclones compared with the straight-moving storms, indicating more environmental influence on these storms. For both groups, the maximum initial sensitive areas are collocated with regions of flow moving toward the storm.

While the initial SV maximum is located where the potential vorticity gradient changes sign, the final SV maximum is located where the potential vorticity gradient is a maximum. Examinations of individual cases demonstrate how SV sensitivity can be used to identify specific environmental influences on the storms. The relationship between the SV sensitivity and the potential vorticity is discussed. The results support the utility of SVs in applications to phenomena beyond midlatitude baroclinic systems.

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Weiwei Li, Zhuo Wang, and Melinda S. Peng

Abstract

Tropical cyclone (TC) forecasts from the NCEP Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFS) Reforecast version 2 (1985–2012) were evaluated from the climate perspective, with a focus on tropical cyclogenesis. Although the GEFS captures the climatological seasonality of tropical cyclogenesis over different ocean basins reasonably well, large errors exist on the regional scale. As different genesis pathways are dominant over different ocean basins, genesis biases are related to biases in different aspects of the large-scale or synoptic-scale circulations over different basins. The negative genesis biases over the western North Pacific are associated with a weaker-than-observed monsoon trough in the GEFS, the erroneous genesis pattern over the eastern North Pacific is related to a southward displacement of the ITCZ, and the positive genesis biases near the Cape Verde islands and negative biases farther downstream over the Atlantic can be attributed to the hyperactive Africa easterly waves in the GEFS. The interannual and subseasonal variability of TC activity in the reforecasts was also examined to evaluate the potential skill of the GEFS in providing subseasonal and seasonal predictions. The GEFS skillfully captures the interannual variability of TC activity over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic, which can be attributed to the modulation of TCs by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM). The GEFS shows promising skill in predicting the active and inactive periods of TC activity over the Atlantic. The skill, however, has large fluctuations from year to year. The analysis presented herein suggests possible impacts of ENSO, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), and the AMM on the TC subseasonal predictability.

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Xuyang Ge, Tim Li, and Melinda S. Peng

Abstract

The genesis of Typhoon Prapiroon (2000), in the western North Pacific, is simulated to understand the role of Rossby wave energy dispersion of a preexisting tropical cyclone (TC) in the subsequent genesis event. Two experiments are conducted. In the control experiment (CTL), the authors retain both the previous typhoon, Typhoon Bilis, and its wave train in the initial condition. In the sensitivity experiment (EXP), the circulation of Typhoon Bilis was removed based on a spatial filtering technique of Kurihara et al., while the wave train in the wake is kept. The comparison between these two numerical simulations demonstrates that the preexisting TC impacts the subsequent TC genesis through both a direct and an indirect process. The direct process is through the conventional barotropic Rossby wave energy dispersion, which enhances the low-level wave train, the boundary layer convergence, and the convection–circulation feedback. The indirect process is through the upper-level outflow jet. The asymmetric outflow jet induces a secondary circulation with a strong divergence tendency to the left-exit side of the outflow jet. The upper-level divergence boosts large-scale ascending motion and promotes favorable environmental conditions for a TC-scale vortex development. In addition, the outflow jet induces a well-organized cyclonic eddy angular momentum flux, which acts as a momentum forcing that enhances the upper-level outflow and low-level inflow and favors the growth of the new TC.

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Melinda S. Peng and R. T. Williams

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A linear nondivergent barotropic model is developed to obtain the asymmetric circulation associated with a vortex moving on the β-plane. The total system is transformed to a coordinate system moving with the vortex. The direction and speed of movement is specified from full nonlinear model results. Two wavenumber one gyres are obtained from the asymmetric vorticity equation. The inner gyres move in the azimuthal direction whose maximum amplitude is located at the radius of maximum wind. These inner gyres are associated either with the unstable mode or the neutral mode depending on the resolution of the model. The outer gyres, whose orientations are always along the track direction specified by the movement, correspond to the β-gyres obtained in the nonlinear numerical model. The strength of the inner gyres is much larger than the strength of the outer gyres. For the steady state solution with high finite difference resolution, only the inner gyres are present. In a steady state solution, the outer β-gyres can be isolated by modifying the inner part of the basic wind profile or by reducing the resolution of the mode. In a time dependent solution, the inner gyres will not form if there is no discrete mode existing in the free model system. The outer β-gyres thus obtained have the correct orientation and magnitude when compared to the solutions of the full nonlinear model. These solutions can be used as a tool for bogusing the vortex into a numerical hurricane forecast model.

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Xuyang Ge, Tim Li, and Melinda Peng

Abstract

A set of idealized experiments using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) were designed to investigate the impacts of a midlevel dry air layer, vertical shear, and their combined effects on tropical cyclone (TC) development. Compared with previous studies that focused on the relative radial position of dry air with no mean flow, it is found that the combined effect of dry air and environmental vertical shear can greatly affect TC development. Moreover, this study indicates the importance of dry air and vertical shear orientations in determining the impact. The background vertical shear causes the tilting of an initially vertically aligned vortex. The shear forces a secondary circulation (FSC) with ascent (descent) in the downshear (upshear) flank. Hence, convection tends to be favored on the downshear side. The FSC reinforced by the convection may overcome the shear-induced drifting and “restore” the vertical alignment. When dry air is located in the downshear-right quadrant of the initial vortex, the dry advection by cyclonic circulation brings the dry air to the downshear side and suppresses moist convection therein. Such a process disrupts the “restoring” mechanism associated with the FSC and thus inhibits TC development. The sensitivity experiments show that, for a fixed dry air condition, a marked difference occurs in TC development between an easterly and a westerly shear background.

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Yamei Xu, Tim Li, and Melinda Peng

Abstract

Experiments using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model were conducted to investigate the effects of multiscale motions on the genesis of Typhoon Manyi (2001) in the western North Pacific. The precursor signal associated with this typhoon genesis was identified as a northwest–southeast-oriented synoptic-scale wave train (SWT). The model successfully simulated the genesis of the typhoon in the wake of the SWT. Further experiments were conducted to isolate the effects of the SWT, the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO), and high-frequency (shorter than 3 days) eddies in the typhoon formation.

Removing the SWT in the initial and boundary conditions eliminates the typhoon genesis. This points out the importance of the SWT in the typhoon genesis. It was noted that the SWT strengthened the wake cyclone through southeastward energy dispersion. The strengthening wake cyclone triggered multiple episodes of strong sustained convective updrafts, leading to aggregation of vertical vorticity and formation of a self-amplified mesoscale core vortex through a “bottom up” development process. Removing the ISO flow eliminates the typhoon genesis, as the ISO significantly modulated the strength of the SWT through accumulation of wave activity. In the absence of SWT–ISO-scale interaction, the southeastward energy dispersion was weakened significantly, and thus the strengthening of the wake cyclone did not occur. As a result, the successive strong sustained convective updrafts disappeared. Removing the high-frequency eddies did not eliminate the typhoon genesis but postponed the genesis for about 36 h.

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