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Michael J. Brown
,
S. Pal Arya
, and
William H. Snyder

Abstract

The vertical diffusion of a passive tracer released from surface and elevated sources in a neutrally stratified boundary layer has been studied by comparing field and laboratory experiments with a non-Gaussian K-theory model that assumes power-law profiles for the mean velocity and vertical eddy diffusivity. Several important differences between model predictions and experimental data were discovered: 1) the model overestimated ground-level concentrations from surface and elevated releases at distances beyond the peak concentration; 2) the model overpredicted vertical mixing near elevated sources, especially in the upward direction; 3) the model-predicted exponent α in the exponential vertical concentration profile for a surface release [C̄(z) exp(−z α)] was smaller than the experimentally measured exponent. Model closure assumptions and experimental shortcomings are discussed in relation to their probable effect on model predictions and experimental measurements.

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Anthony G. Barnston
,
William L. Woodley
,
John A. Flueck
, and
Michael H. Brown

Abstract

The Florida Area Cumulus Experiment (FACE) is a single area, randomized experiment designed to assess the ground-level rainfall effects of dynamic cloud seeding in summer on the south Florida peninsula. The second phase of FACE (FACE-2), an attempt to confirm the indication of seeding-induced rain increases in FACE-1, has been completed. A description of the FACE-2 program design and how well it was implemented in the summers of 1978, 1979 and 1980 is provided. The data reduction process and its rationale are described both for the basic rainfall data and for the predictor variables to be used in the covariate analyses. The resulting FACE-2 rainfall and covariate data are presented for each of the 61 days of experimentation without knowledge of whether actual seeding (using silver iodide) took place. (Part II will contain the confirmatory and replicated analyses of the effects of seeding, and Part III will present a number of exploratory analyses of the FACE-1 and FACE-2 data.)

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Gregory R. Foltz
,
Amato T. Evan
,
H. Paul Freitag
,
Sonya Brown
, and
Michael J. McPhaden

Abstract

Long-term and direct measurements of surface shortwave radiation (SWR) have been recorded by the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA) since 1997. Previous studies have shown that African dust, transported westward from the Sahara and Sahel regions, can accumulate on mooring SWR sensors in the high-dust region of the North Atlantic (8°–25°N, 20°–50°W), potentially leading to significant negative SWR biases. Here dust-accumulation biases are quantified for each PIRATA mooring using direct measurements from the moorings, combined with satellite and reanalysis datasets and statistical models. The SWR records from five locations in the high-dust region (8°, 12°, and 15°N along 38°W; 12° and 21°N along 23°W) are found to contain monthly-mean accumulation biases as large as −200 W m−2 and record-length mean biases on the order of −10 W m−2. The other 12 moorings, located mainly between 10°S and 4°N, are in regions of lower atmospheric dust concentration and do not show statistically significant biases. Seasonal-to-interannual variability of the accumulation bias is found at all locations in the high-dust region. The moorings along 38°W also show decreasing trends in the bias magnitude since 1998 that are possibly related to a corresponding negative trend in atmospheric dust concentration. The dust-accumulation biases described here will be useful for interpreting SWR data from PIRATA moorings in the high-dust region. The biases are also potentially useful for quantifying dust deposition rates in the tropical North Atlantic, which at present are poorly constrained by satellite data and numerical models.

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Steven R. Hanna
,
Michael J. Brown
,
Fernando E. Camelli
,
Stevens T. Chan
,
William J. Coirier
,
Olav R. Hansen
,
Alan H. Huber
,
Sura Kim
, and
R. Michael Reynolds

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model simulations of urban boundary layers have improved in speed and accuracy so that they are useful in assisting in planning emergency response activities related to releases of chemical or biological agents into the atmosphere in large cities such as New York, New York. In this paper, five CFD models [CFD-Urban, Finite Element Flow (FEFLO), Finite Element Model in 3D and Massively-Parallel version (FEM3MP), FLACS, and FLUENT–Environmental Protection Agency (FLUENT-EPA)] have been applied to the same 3D building data and geographic domain in Manhattan, using approximately the same wind input conditions. Wind flow observations are available from the Madison Square Garden 2005 (MSG05) field experiment. Plots of the CFD models' simulations and the observations of near-surface wind fields lead to the qualitative conclusion that the models generally agree with each other and with field observations over most parts of the computational domain, within typical atmospheric uncertainties of a factor of 2. The results are useful to emergency responders, suggesting, for example, that transport of a release at street level in a large city could extend for a few blocks in the upwind and crosswind directions. There are still key differences among the models for certain parts of the domain. Further examination of the differences among the models and the observations are necessary in order to understand the causal relationships.

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BRIAN J. BUTTERWORTH
,
ANKUR R. DESAI
,
STEFAN METZGER
,
PHILIP A. TOWNSEND
,
MARK D. SCHWARTZ
,
GRANT W. PETTY
,
MATTHIAS MAUDER
,
HANNES VOGELMANN
,
CHRISTIAN G. ANDRESEN
,
TRAVIS J. AUGUSTINE
,
TIMOTHY H. BERTRAM
,
WILLIAM O.J. BROWN
,
MICHAEL BUBAN
,
PATRICIA CLEARY
,
DAVID J. DURDEN
,
CHRISTOPHER R. FLORIAN
,
TREVOR J. IGLINSKI
,
ERIC L. KRUGER
,
KATHLEEN LANTZ
,
TEMPLE R. LEE
,
TILDEN P. MEYERS
,
JAMES K. MINEAU
,
ERIK R. OLSON
,
STEVEN P. ONCLEY
,
SREENATH PALERI
,
ROSALYN A. PERTZBORN
,
CLAIRE PETTERSEN
,
DAVID M. PLUMMER
,
LAURA RIIHIMAKI
,
ELICEO RUIZ GUZMAN
,
JOSEPH SEDLAR
,
ELIZABETH N. SMITH
,
JOHANNES SPEIDEL
,
PAUL C. STOY
,
MATTHIAS SÜHRING
,
JONATHAN E. THOM
,
DAVID D. TURNER
,
MICHAEL P. VERMEUEL
,
TIMOTHY J. WAGNER
,
ZHIEN WANG
,
LUISE WANNER
,
LOREN D. WHITE
,
JAMES M. WILCZAK
,
DANIEL B. WRIGHT
, and
TING ZHENG

CAPSULE SUMMARY

A regional-scale observational experiment designed to address how the atmospheric boundary layer responds to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes.

Full access
Brian J. Butterworth
,
Ankur R. Desai
,
Philip A. Townsend
,
Grant W. Petty
,
Christian G. Andresen
,
Timothy H. Bertram
,
Eric L. Kruger
,
James K. Mineau
,
Erik R. Olson
,
Sreenath Paleri
,
Rosalyn A. Pertzborn
,
Claire Pettersen
,
Paul C. Stoy
,
Jonathan E. Thom
,
Michael P. Vermeuel
,
Timothy J. Wagner
,
Daniel B. Wright
,
Ting Zheng
,
Stefan Metzger
,
Mark D. Schwartz
,
Trevor J. Iglinski
,
Matthias Mauder
,
Johannes Speidel
,
Hannes Vogelmann
,
Luise Wanner
,
Travis J. Augustine
,
William O. J. Brown
,
Steven P. Oncley
,
Michael Buban
,
Temple R. Lee
,
Patricia Cleary
,
David J. Durden
,
Christopher R. Florian
,
Kathleen Lantz
,
Laura D. Riihimaki
,
Joseph Sedlar
,
Tilden P. Meyers
,
David M. Plummer
,
Eliceo Ruiz Guzman
,
Elizabeth N. Smith
,
Matthias Sühring
,
David D. Turner
,
Zhien Wang
,
Loren D. White
, and
James M. Wilczak

Abstract

The Chequamegon Heterogeneous Ecosystem Energy-Balance Study Enabled by a High-Density Extensive Array of Detectors 2019 (CHEESEHEAD19) is an ongoing National Science Foundation project based on an intensive field campaign that occurred from June to October 2019. The purpose of the study is to examine how the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) responds to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes. One of the main objectives is to test whether lack of energy balance closure measured by eddy covariance (EC) towers is related to mesoscale atmospheric processes. Finally, the project evaluates data-driven methods for scaling surface energy fluxes, with the aim to improve model–data comparison and integration. To address these questions, an extensive suite of ground, tower, profiling, and airborne instrumentation was deployed over a 10 km × 10 km domain of a heterogeneous forest ecosystem in the Chequamegon–Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, United States, centered on an existing 447-m tower that anchors an AmeriFlux/NOAA supersite (US-PFa/WLEF). The project deployed one of the world’s highest-density networks of above-canopy EC measurements of surface energy fluxes. This tower EC network was coupled with spatial measurements of EC fluxes from aircraft; maps of leaf and canopy properties derived from airborne spectroscopy, ground-based measurements of plant productivity, phenology, and physiology; and atmospheric profiles of wind, water vapor, and temperature using radar, sodar, lidar, microwave radiometers, infrared interferometers, and radiosondes. These observations are being used with large-eddy simulation and scaling experiments to better understand submesoscale processes and improve formulations of subgrid-scale processes in numerical weather and climate models.

Open access
Randall M. Dole
,
J. Ryan Spackman
,
Matthew Newman
,
Gilbert P. Compo
,
Catherine A. Smith
,
Leslie M. Hartten
,
Joseph J. Barsugli
,
Robert S. Webb
,
Martin P. Hoerling
,
Robert Cifelli
,
Klaus Wolter
,
Christopher D. Barnet
,
Maria Gehne
,
Ronald Gelaro
,
George N. Kiladis
,
Scott Abbott
,
Elena Akish
,
John Albers
,
John M. Brown
,
Christopher J. Cox
,
Lisa Darby
,
Gijs de Boer
,
Barbara DeLuisi
,
Juliana Dias
,
Jason Dunion
,
Jon Eischeid
,
Christopher Fairall
,
Antonia Gambacorta
,
Brian K. Gorton
,
Andrew Hoell
,
Janet Intrieri
,
Darren Jackson
,
Paul E. Johnston
,
Richard Lataitis
,
Kelly M. Mahoney
,
Katherine McCaffrey
,
H. Alex McColl
,
Michael J. Mueller
,
Donald Murray
,
Paul J. Neiman
,
William Otto
,
Ola Persson
,
Xiao-Wei Quan
,
Imtiaz Rangwala
,
Andrea J. Ray
,
David Reynolds
,
Emily Riley Dellaripa
,
Karen Rosenlof
,
Naoko Sakaeda
,
Prashant D. Sardeshmukh
,
Laura C. Slivinski
,
Lesley Smith
,
Amy Solomon
,
Dustin Swales
,
Stefan Tulich
,
Allen White
,
Gary Wick
,
Matthew G. Winterkorn
,
Daniel E. Wolfe
, and
Robert Zamora

Abstract

Forecasts by mid-2015 for a strong El Niño during winter 2015/16 presented an exceptional scientific opportunity to accelerate advances in understanding and predictions of an extreme climate event and its impacts while the event was ongoing. Seizing this opportunity, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated an El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR), conducting the first field campaign to obtain intensive atmospheric observations over the tropical Pacific during El Niño.

The overarching ENRR goal was to determine the atmospheric response to El Niño and the implications for predicting extratropical storms and U.S. West Coast rainfall. The field campaign observations extended from the central tropical Pacific to the West Coast, with a primary focus on the initial tropical atmospheric response that links El Niño to its global impacts. NOAA deployed its Gulfstream-IV (G-IV) aircraft to obtain observations around organized tropical convection and poleward convective outflow near the heart of El Niño. Additional tropical Pacific observations were obtained by radiosondes launched from Kiritimati , Kiribati, and the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown, and in the eastern North Pacific by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Hawk unmanned aerial system. These observations were all transmitted in real time for use in operational prediction models. An X-band radar installed in Santa Clara, California, helped characterize precipitation distributions. This suite supported an end-to-end capability extending from tropical Pacific processes to West Coast impacts. The ENRR observations were used during the event in operational predictions. They now provide an unprecedented dataset for further research to improve understanding and predictions of El Niño and its impacts.

Full access