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Robert A. Black, Howard B. Bluestein, and Michael L. Black

Abstract

Unusually strong updrafts and downdrafts in the eyewall of Hurricane Emily (1987) during its rapidly deepening phase are documented by both in situ aircraft measurements and a vertically pointing Doppler radar. Updrafts and downdrafts as strong as 24 and 19 m s−1, respectively, were found. Mean updrafts and downdrafts were approximately twice as strong as those found in other hurricanes. Updrafts had approximately the same width as downdrafts. The most vigorous updrafts were located in the front quadrants of the storm, and most of the strongest downdrafts were found in the rear quadrants. The downdrafts could not be explained in terms of evaporative or melting cooling, or precipitation drag. Evidence is presented that moist symmetric instability initiated by precipitation loading may have been responsible for the strong downdrafts.

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Robert W. Burpee and Michael L. Black

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The Hurricane Research Division collected radar reflectivity data with a portable recorder attached to National Weather Service (NWS) WSR-57 radar as Hurricanes Alicia of 1983 and Elena of 1985 approached the coastline of the United States. The reflectivity data were used to estimate rain rates for the eyewall region, including the rain-free eye, and the rainbands in the annular area outside the eyewall, but within 75 km of the center of the eye. The rain rates include reflectivity corrections that were based upon the variation of average returned power with range in four hurricanes

This study examines the temporal and spatial variations of rain rates in the cores of Hurricanes Alicia and Elena. In Alicia, variations of area-averaged rain rate (R) in the eyewall region were caused by the growth and decay of mesoscale convective areas. In Elena, the life cycles of individual convective cells also accounted for large changes in the eyewall R. In both hurricanes, the time series of R in the rainband region was less variable than the eyewall R, because the rainband region was larger than the eyewall and contained a smaller percentage of convection.

The distribution of precipitation in the eyewall and rainband regions was asymmetric. For several hours early in the observing period, the maximum rain rates in the eyewall and rainband regions of Alicia occurred in the left-front quadrant relative to the storm motion. Then, the heaviest rain in the eyewall region shifted to the right-front quadrant and that in the rainband region moved to the right of the storm track. In Elena, the maximum rain rates in the eyewall and rainband regions remained in the right-front quadrant throughout the computational period. About 55% of the precipitation in Elena's eyewall region occurred in the right-front quadrant.

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Michael L. Black and Hugh E. Willoughby

Abstract

Hurricane Gilbert of 1988 formed an outer eyewall as it intensified rapidly toward a record minimum pressure of 888 hPa in the western Caribbean. The outer eyewall strengthened and contracted, while the inner eyewall showed some signs of weakening before landfall on the Yucatan Peninsula. Remarkably, both eyewalls survived passage over land, but the storm was much weaker when it entered the Gulf of Mexico. Although the primary cause of weakening was passage over land, the effect of the contracting outer eyewall may have contributed. Later, the outer eyewall completely replaced the inner eyewall. Subsequently, it contracted steadily but slowly as Gilbert maintained nearly constant intensity over the cooler waters of the Gulf before final landfall on the mainland of Mexico.

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Kristen L. Corbosiero, John Molinari, and Michael L. Black

Abstract

One of the most complete aircraft reconnaissance and ground-based radar datasets of a single tropical cyclone was recorded in Hurricane Elena (1985) as it made a slow, 3-day anticyclonic loop in the Gulf of Mexico. Eighty-eight radial legs and 47 vertical incidence scans were collected aboard NOAA WP-3D aircraft, and 1142 ground-based radar scans were made of Elena’s eyewall and inner rainbands as the storm intensified from a disorganized category 2 to an intense category 3 hurricane. This large amount of continuously collected data made it possible to examine changes that occurred in Elena’s inner-core symmetric structure as the storm intensified.

On the first day of study, Elena was under the influence of vertical wind shear from an upper-tropospheric trough to the west. The storm was disorganized, with no discernable eyewall and nearly steady values of tangential wind and relative vorticity. Early on the second day of study, a near superposition and constructive interference occurred between the trough and Elena, coincident with upward vertical velocities and the radial gradient of reflectivity becoming concentrated around the 30-km radius. Once an inner wind maximum and eyewall developed, the radius of maximum winds contracted and a sharp localized vorticity maximum emerged, with much lower values on either side. This potentially unstable vorticity profile was accompanied by a maximum in equivalent potential temperature in the eyewall, deeper and stronger inflow out to 24 km from the eyewall, and mean outflow toward the eyewall from the eye.

Within 6–12 h, intensification came to an end and Elena began to slowly weaken. Vorticity and equivalent potential temperature at 850 hPa showed indications of prior mixing between the eye and eyewall. During the weakening stage, an outflow jet developed at the eyewall radius. A strong 850-hPa updraft accompanied the outflow jet, yet convection was less active aloft than before. This feature appeared to represent a shallow, outward-sloping updraft channel associated with the spindown of the storm.

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James L. Franklin, Michael L. Black, and Krystal Valde

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The recent development of the global positioning system (GPS) dropwindsonde has allowed the wind and thermodynamic structure of the hurricane eyewall to be documented with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. In an attempt to assist operational hurricane forecasters in their duties, dropwindsonde data have been used in this study to document, for the first time, the mean vertical profile of wind speed in the hurricane inner core from the surface to the 700-hPa level, the level typically flown by reconnaissance aircraft. The dropwindsonde-derived mean eyewall wind profile is characterized by a broad maximum centered 500 m above the surface. In the frictional boundary layer below this broad maximum, the wind decreases nearly linearly with the logarithm of the altitude. Above the maximum, the winds decrease because of the hurricane's warm core. These two effects combine to give a surface wind that is, on average, about 90% of the 700-hPa value. The dropwindsonde observations largely confirm recent operational practices at the National Hurricane Center for the interpretation of flight-level data. Hurricane wind profiles outside of the eyewall region are characterized by a higher level of maximum wind, near 1 km, and a more constant wind speed between 700 hPa and the top of the boundary layer. Two factors that likely affect the eyewall profile structure are wind speed and vertical motion. A minimum in surface wind adjustment factor (i.e., relatively low surface wind speeds) was found when the wind near the top of the boundary layer was between 40 and 60 m s−1. At higher wind speeds, the fraction of the boundary layer wind speed found at the surface increased, contrary to expectation. Low-level downdrafts, and enhanced vertical motion generally, were also associated with higher relative surface winds. These results may be of interest to engineers concerned with building codes, to emergency managers who may be tempted to use high-rise buildings as a “refuge of last resort” in coastal areas, and to those people on locally elevated terrain. The top of a 25-story coastal high-rise in the hurricane eyewall will experience a mean wind that is about 17% higher (or one Saffir–Simpson hurricane-scale category) than the surface or advisory value. For this reason, residents who must take refuge in coastal high-rises should generally do so at the lowest levels necessary to avoid storm surge.

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Alexander Lowag, Michael L. Black, and Matthew D. Eastin

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Hurricane Bret underwent a rapid intensification (RI) and subsequent weakening between 1200 UTC 21 August and 1200 UTC 22 August 1999 before it made landfall on the Texas coast 12 h later. Its minimum sea level pressure fell 35 hPa from 979 to 944 hPa within 24 h. During this period, aircraft of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) flew several research missions that sampled the environment and inner core of the storm. These datasets are combined with gridded data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Model and the NCEP–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalyses to document Bret’s atmospheric and oceanic environment as well as their relation to the observed structural and intensity changes. Bret’s RI was linked to movement over a warm ocean eddy and high sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Gulf of Mexico coupled with a concurrent decrease in vertical wind shear. SSTs at the beginning of the storm’s RI were approximately 29°C and steadily increased to 30°C as it moved to the north. The vertical wind shear relaxed to less than 10 kt during this time. Mean values of oceanic heat content (OHC) beneath the storm were about 20% higher at the beginning of the RI period than 6 h prior. The subsequent weakening was linked to the cooling of near-coastal shelf waters (to between 25° and 26°C) by prestorm mixing combined with an increase in vertical wind shear. The available observations suggest no intrusion of dry air into the circulation core contributed to the intensity evolution. Sensitivity studies with the Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme (SHIPS) model were conducted to quantitatively describe the influence of environmental conditions on the intensity forecast. Four different cases with modified vertical wind shear and/or SSTs were studied. Differences between the four cases were relatively small because of the model design, but the greatest intensity changes resulted for much cooler prescribed SSTs. The results of this study underscore the importance of OHC and vertical wind shear as significant factors during RIs; however, internal dynamical processes appear to play a more critical role when a favorable environment is present.

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Mark D. Powell, Peter P. Dodge, and Michael L. Black

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Hurricane Hugo struck Charleston, South Carolina, on 22 September 1989 as the most intense hurricane to affect the United States since Camille in 1969. The northeastern eyewall, which contained the maximum winds measured by reconnaissance aircraft shortly before landfall, moved inland over a relatively unpopulated area and there were few fatalities. However, no observations were available to document the surface wind distribution in this part of the storm as it continued inland.

To improve specification of surface winds in Hugo, empirically adjusted aircraft winds were combined with coastal, offshore, and inland surface observations and were input to the Ooyama objective analysis algorithm. The wind analysis at landfall was then compared with subsequent analyses at 3 and 6 h after landfall. Reconstruction of the surface wind field at landfall suggests that the maximum (∼13 min mean) surface wind at the coast was 50 m s−1 in the Bulls Bay region, ∼40 km northeast of Charleston. Surface roughness over land caused wind speeds to drop off rapidly just inland of the coast to only 50% of values measured by reconnaissance aircraft at the same location relative to the storm over water. Despite relatively rapid increases in the central sea-level pressure and decreases in the mean circulation as Hugo progressed inland, hurricane-force wind gusts extended Hugo's damage pattern well past Charlotte, North Carolina, ∼330 km inland.

Accurate determination of surface wind distribution in land-falling hurricanes is dependent upon the spatial density and quality of surface wind measurements and techniques to adjust reconnaissance flight-level winds to the surface. Improvements should allow forecasters to prepare more-accurate warnings and advisories and allow more-thorough documentation of poststorm effects. Empirical adjustments to reconnaissance aircraft measurements may replace surface data voids if the vertical profile of the horizontal wind is known. Expanded use of the airborne stepped-frequency microwave radiometer for remote sensing of ocean surface winds could fill data voids without relying upon empirical methods or models. A larger network of offshore, coastal, and inland surface platforms at standard (10-m) elevations with improved sampling strategies is envisioned for better resolution of hurricane wind fields. A rapid-response automatic station network, deployed at prearranged coastal locations by local universities with meteorology and/or wind engineering programs, could further supplement the fixed platform network and avoid the logistical problems posed by sending outside teams into threatened areas.

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Michael L. Black, Robert W. Burpee, and Frank D. Marks Jr.

Abstract

Vertical motions in seven Atlantic hurricanes are determined from data recorded by Doppler radars on research aircraft. The database consists of Doppler velocities and reflectivities from vertically pointing radar rays collected along radial flight legs through the hurricane centers. The vertical motions are estimated throughout the depth of the troposphere from the Doppler velocities and bulk estimates of particle fallspeeds.

Portions of the flight tracks are subjectively divided into eyewall, rainband, stratiform, and “other” regions. Characteristics of the vertical velocity and radar structure are described as a function of altitude for the entire dataset and each of the four regions. In all of the regions, more than 70% of the vertical velocities range from −2 to 2 m s−1. The broadest distribution of vertical motion is in the eyewall region where ∼5% of the vertical motions are >5 m s−1. Averaged over the entire dataset, the mean vertical velocity is upward at all altitudes. Mean downward motion occurs only in the lower troposphere of the stratiform region. Significant vertical variations in the mean profiles of vertical velocity and reflectivity are discussed and related to microphysical processes.

In the lower and middle troposphere, the characteristics of the Doppler-derived vertical motions are similar to those described in an earlier study using flight-level vertical velocities, even though the horizontal resolution of the Doppler data is ∼750 m compared to ∼125 m from the in situ flight-level measurements. The Doppler data are available at higher altitudes than those reached by turboprop aircraft and provide information on vertical as well as horizontal variations. In a vertical plane along the radial flight tracks, Doppler up- and downdrafts are defined at each 300-m altitude interval as vertical velocities whose absolute values continuously exceed 1.5 m s−1, with at least one speed having an absolute value greater than 3.0 m s−1. The properties of the Doppler drafts are lognormally distributed. In each of the regions, updrafts outnumber downdrafts by at least a factor of 2 and updrafts are wider and stronger than downdrafts. Updrafts in the eyewall slope radially outward with height and are significantly correlated over larger radial and vertical extents than in the other three regions. If the downwind (tangential) slope with height of updrafts varies little among the regions, updrafts capable of transporting air with relatively large moist static energy from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere are primarily in the eyewall region. Downdrafts affect a smaller vertical and horizontal area than updrafts and have no apparent radial slope.

The total upward or downward mass flux is defined as the flux produced by all of the upward or downward Doppler vertical velocities. The maximum upward mass flux in all but the “other” region is near 1-km altitude, an indication that boundary-layer convergence is efficient in producing upward motion. Above the sea surface, the downward mass flux decreases with altitude. At every altitude, the total net mass flux is upward, except for the lower troposphere in the stratiform region where it is downward. Doppler-derived up- and downdrafts are a subset of the vertical velocity field that occupy small fractions of the total area, yet they contribute a substantial fraction to the total mass flux. In the eyewall and rainband regions, for example, the Doppler updrafts cover less than 30% of the area but are responsible for >75% and >50% to the total upward mass flux, respectively. The Doppler downdrafts typically encompass less than 10% of the area yet provide ∼50% of the total downward mass flux in the eyewall and ∼20% of the total downward flux in the rainband, stratiform, and “other” regions.

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Qingyun Zhao, Thomas L. Black, and Michael E. Baldwin

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An explicit cloud prediction scheme has been developed and incorporated into the Eta Model at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) to improve the cloud and precipitation forecasts. In this scheme, the cloud liquid water and cloud ice are explicitly predicted by adding only one prognostic equation of cloud mixing ratio to the model. Precipitation of rain and snow in this scheme is diagnostically calculated from the predicted cloud fields. The model-predicted clouds are also used in the model’s radiation calculations. Results from the parallel tests performed at NCEP show improvements in precipitation forecasts when prognostic cloud water is included. Compared with the diagnostic clouds, the model-predicted clouds are more accurate in both amount and position. Improvements in specific humidity forecasts have also been found, especially near the surface and above the freezing level.

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Robert F. Rogers, Michael L. Black, Shuyi S. Chen, and Robert A. Black

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This study presents a framework for comparing hydrometeor and vertical velocity fields from mesoscale model simulations of tropical cyclones with observations of these fields from a variety of platforms. The framework is based on the Yuter and Houze constant frequency by altitude diagram (CFAD) technique, along with a new hurricane partitioning technique, to compare the statistics of vertical motion and reflectivity fields and hydrometeor concentrations from two datasets: one consisting of airborne radar retrievals and microphysical probe measurements collected from tropical cyclone aircraft flights over many years, and another consisting of cloud-scale (1.67-km grid length) tropical cyclone simulations using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). Such comparisons of the microphysics fields can identify biases in the simulations that may lead to an identification of deficiencies in the modeling system, such as the formulation of various physical parameterization schemes used in the model. Improvements in these schemes may potentially lead to better forecasts of tropical cyclone intensity and rainfall.

In Part I of this study, the evaluation framework is demonstrated by comparing the radar retrievals and probe measurements to MM5 simulations of Hurricanes Bonnie (1998) and Floyd (1999). Comparisons of the statistics from the two datasets show that the model reproduces many of the gross features seen in the observations, though notable differences are evident. The general distribution of vertical motion is similar between the observations and simulations, with the strongest up- and downdrafts making up a small percentage of the overall population in both datasets, but the magnitudes of vertical motion are weaker in the simulations. The model-derived reflectivities are much higher than observed, and correlations between vertical motion and hydrometeor concentration and reflectivity show a much stronger relationship in the model than what is observed. Possible errors in the data processing are discussed as potential sources of differences between the observed and simulated datasets in Part I. In Part II, attention will be focused on using the evaluation framework to investigate the role that different model configurations (i.e., different resolutions and physical parameterizations) play in producing different microphysics fields in the simulation of Hurricane Bonnie. The microphysical and planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes, as well as higher horizontal and vertical resolutions, will be tested in the simulation to identify the extent to which changes in these schemes are reflected in improvements of the statistical comparisons with the observations.

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