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Sara Haines, Harvey Seim, and Mike Muglia


Quality control procedures based on nonvelocity parameters for use with a short-range radar system are applied with slight modification to long-range radar data collected offshore of North Carolina. The radar footprint covers shelf and slope environments and includes a segment of the Gulf Stream (GS). Standard processed and quality controlled (QCD) radar data are compared with 4 months of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) time series collected at three different sites within the radar footprint. Two of the ADCP records are from the shelf and the third is on the upper slope and is frequently within the GS. Linear regression and Bland–Altman diagrams are used to quantify the comparison. QCD data at all sites have reduced scatter and improved correlation with ADCP observations relative to standard processed data. Uncertainty is reduced by approximately 20%, and linear regression slopes and correlation coefficients increase by about 0.1. At the upper slope site, the QCD data also produced a significant increase in the mean speed. Additionally, a significant increase, averaging roughly 20%, in mean speed in the GS is apparent when comparing standard processed data and QCD data, concentrated at large range and at the azimuthal extremes of radial site coverage. Shifts in the distributions of the standard processed and QCD velocity estimates are consistent with the removal of zero-mean noise from the observations, which has minimal impact where the radial site range is <70 km and a large impact at greater range in the GS where mean currents exceed 1 m s−1.

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Lu Han, Harvey Seim, John Bane, Robert E. Todd, and Mike Muglia


Carbon-rich Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and South Atlantic Bight (SAB) shelf waters typically converge on the continental shelf near Cape Hatteras. Both are often exported to the adjacent open ocean in this region. During a survey of the region in mid-January 2018, there was no sign of shelf water export at the surface. Instead, a subsurface layer of shelf water with high chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen was observed at the edge of the Gulf Stream east of Cape Hatteras. Strong cooling over the MAB and SAB shelves in early January led to shelf waters being denser than offshore surface waters. Driven by the density gradient, the denser shelf waters cascaded beneath the Gulf Stream and were subsequently entrained into the Gulf Stream, as they were advected northeastward. Underwater glider observations 80 km downstream of the export location captured 0.44 Sv of shelf waters transported along the edge of the Gulf Stream in January 2018. In total, as much as 7×106 kg of carbon was exported from the continental shelf to a greater depth in the open ocean during this 5-day-long cascading event. Earlier observations of near-bottom temperature and salinity at a depth of 230 m captured several multiday episodes of shelf water at a location that was otherwise dominated by Gulf Stream water, indicating that the January 2018 cascading event was not unique. Cascading is an important, yet little-studied pathway of carbon export and sequestration at Cape Hatteras.

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