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Mikhail Varentsov, Igor Esau, and Tobias Wolf


Detailed temperature maps are required in various applications. Any temperature interpolation over complex terrain must account for differences in land cover and elevation. Local circulations and other small-scale factors can also perturb the temperature. This study considers the surface air temperature T mapping with geostatistical kriging. The kriging methods are implemented for both T and temperature anomalies ΔT, defined as difference between T at a given location and T at the same elevation in the free atmosphere. The study explores the parallelized atmospheric large-eddy simulation (LES) model (PALM) as a source for variogram and external drift in the kriging methods. Ten kriging methods for the temperature mapping have been considered: ordinary kriging (OK) of T and ΔT with variogram derived from the observations (methods 1 and 2, correspondingly); OK of T and ΔT with variogram derived from LES data (3 and 4); universal kriging with external drift (KED) that utilizes the LES data (5 and 6); a weighted combination of KED of T and ΔT (method 7); and methods 5, 6, and 7 enhanced with additional “virtual” points in remote areas (methods 8, 9, and 10). These 10 methods are evaluated for eight typical weather situations observed in Bergen, Norway. Our results demonstrate considerable added value of the LES information for the detailed meteorological temperature mapping. The LES data improve both the variogram and the resulting temperature maps, especially in the remote mountain parts of the domain and along the coast.

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Mikhail Varentsov, Natalia Shartova, Mikhail Grischenko, and Pavel Konstantinov


The assessment of bioclimatic conditions at the national scale remains a highly relevant task. It might be one of the main parts of the national strategy for the sustainable development of different regions under changing climatic conditions. This study evaluated the thermal comfort conditions and their changes in Russia according to gridded meteorological data from ERA-Interim reanalysis with a spatial resolution of 0.75° × 0.75° using the two most popular bioclimatic indices based on the human energy balance: physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal comfort index (UTCI). We analyzed the summer and winter means of these indices as well as the repeatability of different thermal stress grades for the current climatological standard normal period (1981–2010) and the trends of these parameters over the 1979–2018 period. We revealed the high diversity of the analyzed parameters in Russia as well as significant differences between the contemporary climate conditions and their changes in terms of mean temperature, mean values of bioclimatic indices, and thermal stress repeatability. Within the country, all degrees of thermal stress were possible; however, severe summer heat stress was rare, and in winter nearly the whole country experienced severe cold stress. Multidirectional changes in bioclimatic conditions were observed in Russia against the general background of climate warming. The European part of the country was most susceptible to climate change because it experiences significant changes both in summer and winter thermal stress repeatability. Intense Arctic warming was not reflected in significant changes in thermal stress repeatability.

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