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Minhee Chang, Doo-Sun R. Park, and Chang-Hoi Ho


An abrupt decrease in annual tropical cyclone genesis frequency (TCGF), which is statistically significant only from October to December (OND), has been noticed over the western North Pacific Ocean. However, the seasonal inhomogeneity of interdecadal changes in TCGF between OND and the other seasons (from January to September) and the associated mechanisms are not clearly documented. This study examines and compares the different interdecadal changes in OND and in January–September from 1979 to 2018. According to our analysis, the TCGF decrease in OND (2.2) accounts for 79% of the total decrease (2.8) in annual TCGF after 1998, whereas the TCGF in January to September remains unchanged. The key differences in large-scale environment are found from the extension of equatorial easterly wind anomalies and attendant anticyclone anomalies in the subtropics. Under similar sea surface temperature (SST) warming pattern in the tropical Indo-Pacific region (i.e., the La Niña–like SST warming), tropical precipitation is significantly enhanced over the area where its seasonal peak occurs: the tropical Indian Ocean in OND and the tropical western Pacific in January–September. Thus, the equatorial easterly wind anomalies extend westward to 110°E in OND and to 145°E in January–September. Different extension of easterly wind anomalies results in different expansion of attendant large-scale anticyclone anomaly over the subtropical western Pacific, which dominates the entire main development region in OND but not in January–September. To summarize, the different extensions of easterly wind anomalies under similar La Niña–like SST warming are responsible for the seasonal inhomogeneity of interdecadal changes in TCGF.

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Hung Ming Cheung, Chang-Hoi Ho, Minhee Chang, Dasol Kim, Jinwon Kim, and Woosuk Choi


Despite tremendous advancements in dynamical models for weather forecasting, statistical models continue to offer various possibilities for tropical cyclone (TC) track forecasting. Herein, a track-pattern-based approach was developed to predict a TC track for a lead time of 6–8 days over the western North Pacific (WNP), utilizing historical tracks in conjunction with dynamical forecasts. It is composed of four main steps: 1) clustering historical tracks similar to that of an operational 5-day forecast in their early phase into track patterns, and calculating the daily mean environmental fields (500-hPa geopotential height and steering flow) associated with each track; 2) deriving the two environmental variables forecasted by dynamical models; 3) evaluating pattern correlation coefficients between the two environmental fields from step 1 and those from dynamical model for a lead times of 6–8 days; and 4) producing the final track forecast based on relative frequency maps obtained from the historical tracks in step 1 and the pattern correlation coefficients obtained from step 3. TCs that formed in the WNP and lasted for at least 7 days, during the 9-yr period 2011–19 were selected to verify the resulting track-pattern-based forecasts. In addition to the performance comparable to dynamical models under certain conditions, the track-pattern-based model is inexpensive, and can consistently produce forecasts over large latitudinal or longitudinal ranges. Machine learning techniques can be implemented to incorporate nonlinearity in the present model for improving medium-range track forecasts.

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Min-Hee Lee, Sukyoung Lee, Hyo-Jong Song, and Chang-Hoi Ho


This study has investigated the relationship between temperature extremes and a subseasonal hemispheric teleconnection pattern over the Northern Hemisphere during boreal summer. By applying self-organizing map (SOM) analysis to 200-hPa geopotential fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim) for the period 1979–2012, a teleconnection pattern is identified that increased dramatically in its occurrence after the late 1990s. This pattern is characterized by a zonal wavenumber-5 pattern with anomalous high pressure cores over eastern Europe, northeastern Asia, the eastern North Pacific, the eastern United States, and Greenland. These high pressure centers coincide with regions of increasingly frequent temperature extremes in recent decades. To investigate the temporal evolution of the identified SOM pattern, time-lagged composites were performed relative to the days in which the 200-hPa geopotential field most closely resembled the SOM pattern. From day −10 to day 0, a wave train propagated from the central tropical Pacific to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Greenland. This poleward wave propagation was followed by the establishment of quasi-stationary high pressure centers over Greenland, Europe, and Asia. This study suggests that more frequent occurrence of the hemispheric teleconnection is linked to more severe and longer extreme weather events over the Northern Hemisphere since the late 1990s.

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