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Mohamad El Gharamti

Abstract

Spatially and temporally varying adaptive inflation algorithms have been developed to combat the loss of variance during the forecast due to various model and sampling errors. The adaptive Bayesian scheme of Anderson uses available observations to update the Gaussian inflation distribution assigned for every state variable. The likelihood function of the inflation is computed using model-minus-data innovation statistics. A number of enhancements for this inflation scheme are proposed. To prevent excessive deflation, an inverse gamma distribution for the prior inflation is considered. A non-Gaussian distribution offers a flexible framework for the inflation variance to evolve during the update. The innovations are assumed random variables, and a correction term is added to the mode of the likelihood distribution such that the observed inflation is slightly larger. This modification improves the stability of the adaptive scheme by limiting the occurrence of negative and physically intolerable inflations. The enhanced scheme is compared to the original one in twin experiments using the Lorenz-63 model, the Lorenz-96 model, and an idealized, high-dimensional atmospheric model. Results show that the proposed enhancements are capable of generating accurate and consistent state estimates. Allowing moderate deflation is shown to be useful.

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Mohamad El Gharamti

Abstract

Model errors and sampling errors produce inaccurate sample covariances that limit the performance of ensemble Kalman filters. Linearly hybridizing the flow-dependent ensemble-based covariance with a time-invariant background covariance matrix gives a better estimate of the true error covariance. Previous studies have shown this, both in theory and in practice. How to choose the weight for each covariance remains an open question especially in the presence of model biases. This study assumes the weighting coefficient to be a random variable and then introduces a Bayesian scheme to estimate it using the available data. The scheme takes into account the discrepancy between the ensemble mean and the observations, the ensemble variance, the static background variance, and the uncertainties in the observations. The proposed algorithm is first derived for a spatially constant weight and then this assumption is relaxed by estimating a unique scalar weight for each state variable. Using twin experiments with the 40-variable Lorenz 96 system, it is shown that the proposed scheme is able to produce quality forecasts even in the presence of severe sampling errors. The adaptive algorithm allows the hybrid filter to switch between an EnKF and a simple EnOI depending on the statistics of the ensemble. In the presence of model errors, the adaptive scheme demonstrates additional improvements compared with standard enhancements alone, such as inflation and localization. Finally, the potential of the spatially varying variant to accommodate challenging sparse observation networks is demonstrated. The computational efficiency and storage of the proposed scheme, which remain an obstacle, are discussed.

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Mohamad El Gharamti, Kevin Raeder, Jeffrey Anderson, and Xuguang Wang

Abstract

Sampling errors and model errors are major drawbacks from which ensemble Kalman filters suffer. Sampling errors arise because of the use of a limited ensemble size, while model errors are deficiencies in the dynamics and underlying parameterizations that may yield biases in the model’s prediction. In this study, we propose a new time-adaptive posterior inflation algorithm in which the analyzed ensemble anomalies are locally inflated. The proposed inflation strategy is computationally efficient and is aimed at restoring enough spread in the analysis ensemble after assimilating the observations. The performance of this scheme is tested against the relaxation to prior spread (RTPS) and adaptive prior inflation. For this purpose, two model are used: the three-variable Lorenz 63 system and the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). In CAM, global refractivity, temperature, and wind observations from several sources are incorporated to perform a set of assimilation experiments using the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART). The proposed scheme is shown to yield better quality forecasts than the RTPS. Assimilation results further suggest that when model errors are small, both prior and posterior inflation are able to mitigate sampling errors with a slight advantage to posterior inflation. When large model errors, such as wind and temperature biases, are present, prior inflation is shown to be more accurate than posterior inflation. Densely observed regions as in the Northern Hemisphere present numerous challenges to the posterior inflation algorithm. A compelling enhancement to the performance of the filter is achieved by combining both adaptive inflation schemes.

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Ibrahim Hoteit, Yasser Abualnaja, Shehzad Afzal, Boujemaa Ait-El-Fquih, Triantaphyllos Akylas, Charls Antony, Clint Dawson, Khaled Asfahani, Robert J. Brewin, Luigi Cavaleri, Ivana Cerovecki, Bruce Cornuelle, Srinivas Desamsetti, Raju Attada, Hari Dasari, Jose Sanchez-Garrido, Lily Genevier, Mohamad El Gharamti, John A. Gittings, Elamurugu Gokul, Ganesh Gopalakrishnan, Daquan Guo, Bilel Hadri, Markus Hadwiger, Mohammed Abed Hammoud, Myrl Hendershott, Mohamad Hittawe, Ashok Karumuri, Omar Knio, Armin Köhl, Samuel Kortas, George Krokos, Ravi Kunchala, Leila Issa, Issam Lakkis, Sabique Langodan, Pierre Lermusiaux, Thang Luong, Jingyi Ma, Olivier Le Maitre, Matthew Mazloff, Samah El Mohtar, Vassilis P. Papadopoulos, Trevor Platt, Larry Pratt, Naila Raboudi, Marie-Fanny Racault, Dionysios E. Raitsos, Shanas Razak, Sivareddy Sanikommu, Shubha Sathyendranath, Sarantis Sofianos, Aneesh Subramanian, Rui Sun, Edriss Titi, Habib Toye, George Triantafyllou, Kostas Tsiaras, Panagiotis Vasou, Yesubabu Viswanadhapalli, Yixin Wang, Fengchao Yao, Peng Zhan, and George Zodiatis

Abstract

The Red Sea, home to the second-longest coral reef system in the world, is a vital resource for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Red Sea provides 90% of the Kingdom’s potable water by desalinization, supporting tourism, shipping, aquaculture, and fishing industries, which together contribute about 10%–20% of the country’s GDP. All these activities, and those elsewhere in the Red Sea region, critically depend on oceanic and atmospheric conditions. At a time of mega-development projects along the Red Sea coast, and global warming, authorities are working on optimizing the harnessing of environmental resources, including renewable energy and rainwater harvesting. All these require high-resolution weather and climate information. Toward this end, we have undertaken a multipronged research and development activity in which we are developing an integrated data-driven regional coupled modeling system. The telescopically nested components include 5-km- to 600-m-resolution atmospheric models to address weather and climate challenges, 4-km- to 50-m-resolution ocean models with regional and coastal configurations to simulate and predict the general and mesoscale circulation, 4-km- to 100-m-resolution ecosystem models to simulate the biogeochemistry, and 1-km- to 50-m-resolution wave models. In addition, a complementary probabilistic transport modeling system predicts dispersion of contaminant plumes, oil spill, and marine ecosystem connectivity. Advanced ensemble data assimilation capabilities have also been implemented for accurate forecasting. Resulting achievements include significant advancement in our understanding of the regional circulation and its connection to the global climate, development, and validation of long-term Red Sea regional atmospheric–oceanic–wave reanalyses and forecasting capacities. These products are being extensively used by academia, government, and industry in various weather and marine studies and operations, environmental policies, renewable energy applications, impact assessment, flood forecasting, and more.

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