Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for

  • Author or Editor: Mukul Tewari x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Francisco Salamanca, Alberto Martilli, Mukul Tewari, and Fei Chen

Abstract

In the last two decades, mesoscale models (MMs) with urban canopy parameterizations have been widely used to study urban boundary layer processes. Different studies show that such parameterizations are sensitive to the urban canopy parameters (UCPs) that define the urban morphology. At the same time, high-resolution UCP databases are becoming available for several cities. Studies are then needed to determine, for a specific application of an MM, the optimum degree of complexity of the urban canopy parameterizations and the resolution and details necessary in the UCP datasets. In this work, and in an attempt to answer the previous issues, four urban canopy schemes, with different degrees of complexity, have been used with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the planetary boundary layer over the city of Houston, Texas, for two days in August 2000. For the UCP two approaches have been considered: one based on three urban classes derived from the National Land Cover Data of the U.S. Geological Survey and one based on the highly detailed National Urban Database and Access Portal Tool (NUDAPT) dataset with a spatial resolution of 1 km2. Two-meter air temperature and surface wind speed have been used in the evaluation. The statistical analysis shows a tendency to overestimate the air temperatures by the simple bulk scheme and underestimate the air temperatures by the more detailed urban canopy parameterizations. Similarly, the bulk and single-layer schemes tend to overestimate the wind speed while the multilayer schemes underestimate it. The three-dimensional analysis of the meteorological fields revealed a possible impact (to be verified against measurements) of both the urban schemes and the UCP on cloud prediction. Moreover, the impact of air conditioning systems on the air temperature and their energy consumption has been evaluated with the most developed urban scheme for the two simulated days. During the night, this anthropogenic heat was responsible for an increase in the air temperature of up to 2°C in the densest urban areas, and the estimated energy consumption was of the same magnitude as energy consumption obtained with different methods when the most detailed UCP database was used. On the basis of the results for the present case study, one can conclude that if the purpose of the simulation requires only an estimate of the 2-m temperature a simple bulk scheme is sufficient but if the purpose of the simulation is an evaluation of an urban heat island mitigation strategy or the evaluation of the energy consumption due to air conditioning at city scale, it is necessary to use a complex urban canopy scheme and a detailed UCP.

Full access
Christine Wiedinmyer, Michael Barlage, Mukul Tewari, and Fei Chen

Abstract

Physical characteristics of forests and other ecosystems control land–atmosphere exchanges of water and energy and partly dictate local and regional meteorology. Insect infestation and resulting forest dieback can alter these characteristics and, further, modify land–atmosphere exchanges. In the past decade, insect infestation has led to large-scale forest mortality in western North America. This study uses a high-resolution mesoscale meteorological model coupled with a detailed land surface model to investigate the sensitivity of near-surface variables to insect-related forest mortality. The inclusion of this land surface disturbance in the model increased in simulated skin temperature by as much as 2.1 K. The modeled 2-m temperature increased an average of 1 K relative to the default simulations. A latent to sensible heat flux shift with a magnitude of 10%–15% of the available energy in the forested ecosystem was predicted after the inclusion of insect infestation and forest dieback. Although results were consistent across multiple model configurations, the characteristics of forests affected by insect infestations must be better constrained to more accurately predict their impacts. Despite the limited duration of the simulations (one week), these initial results suggest the importance of including large-scale forest mortality due to insect infestation in meteorological models and highlight the need for better observations of the characteristics and exchanges of these disturbed landscapes.

Full access
James Brownlee, Pallav Ray, Mukul Tewari, and Haochen Tan

Abstract

Numerical simulations without hydrological processes tend to overestimate the near-surface temperatures over urban areas. This is presumably due to underestimation of surface latent heat flux. To test this hypothesis, the existing single-layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) within the Weather Research and Forecasting Model is evaluated over Houston, Texas. Three simulations were conducted during 24–26 August 2000. The simulations include the use of the default “BULK” urban scheme, the SLUCM without hydrological processes, and the SLUCM with hydrological processes. The results show that the BULK scheme was least accurate, and it overestimated the near-surface temperatures and winds over the urban regions. In the presence of urban hydrological processes, the SLUCM underestimates these parameters. An analysis of the surface heat fluxes suggests that the error in the BULK scheme is due to a lack of moisture at the urban surface, whereas the error in the SLUCM with hydrological processes is due to increases in moisture at the urban surface. These results confirm earlier studies in which changes in near-surface temperature were primarily due to the changes in the turbulent (latent and sensible heat) fluxes in the presence of hydrological processes. The contribution from radiative flux was about one-third of that from turbulent flux. In the absence of hydrological processes, however, the results indicate that the changes in radiative flux contribute more to the near-surface temperature changes than the turbulent heat flux. The implications of these results are discussed.

Full access
Loren D. White, Mukul Tewari, and T. N. Krishnamurti

Abstract

Using The Florida State University Global Spectral Model, hydrological budgets are calculated over the Amazon River basin for the boreal summer of 1979 with and without a complex biosphere model (BATS) coupled to the atmospheric model. Substantially increased precipitation and latent heat fluxes over the Amazon are noted for the BATS case, along with better maintenance of low-level flow patterns. Partitioning of the rainfall and latent heat flux into detailed component terms from BATS reveals evidence of “moisture recycling,” particularly in relation to the intercepted rainfall. Monthly variations in the component terms for precipitation, latent heat flux, and upper soil moisture are described. A total runoff efficiency of 75% is simulated by the model, while the surface runoff efficiency is about 30%. Model performance in the locality of two intensive field study areas (Pará and Rondônia) of the Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia has been examined via time series from the two models and observed data. The 850-hPa temperatures and wind speeds are both overestimated by the models. However, use of BATS has reduced the temperature bias by about 30%. Most significantly, the phase of the wind speed variations over Rondônia is maintained in agreement with the observations throughout the seasonal forecast.

Full access
Margaret A. LeMone, Mukul Tewari, Fei Chen, and Jimy Dudhia

Abstract

Heights of nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) features are determined using vertical profiles from the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF), and then compared to data for three moderately windy fair-weather nights during the April–May 1997 Kansas-based Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97) to evaluate the success of four PBL schemes in replicating observations. The schemes are Bougeault–LaCarrere (BouLac), Mellor–Yamada–Janjić (MYJ), quasi-normal scale elimination (QNSE), and Yonsei University (YSU) versions 3.2 and 3.4.1. This study’s chosen objectively determined model NBL height h estimate uses a turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) threshold equal to 5% , where TKE′ is relative to its background (free atmosphere) value. The YSU- and MYJ-determined h could not be improved upon. Observed heights of the virtual temperature maximum h Tvmax and wind speed maximum h Smax, and the heights h 1wsonde and h 2wsonde, between which the radiosonde slows from ~5 to ~3 m s−1 as it rises from turbulent to nonturbulent air, and thus brackets h, were used for comparison to model results. The observations revealed a general pattern: h Tvmax increased through the night, and h Tvmax and h Smax converged with time, and the two mostly lay between h 1wsonde and h 2wsonde after several hours. Clear failure to adhere to this pattern and large excursions from observations or other PBL schemes revealed excess mixing for BouLac and YSU version 3.2 (but not version 3.4.1) and excess thermal mixing for QNSE under windy conditions. Observed friction velocity was much smaller than model values, with differences consistent with the observations reflecting local skin drag and the model reflecting regional form drag + skin drag.

Full access
Margaret A. LeMone, Mukul Tewari, Fei Chen, and Jimy Dudhia

Abstract

High-resolution 24-h runs of the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model are used to test eight objective methods for estimating convective boundary layer (CBL) depth h, using four planetary boundary layer schemes: Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor–Yamada–Janjic (MYJ), Bougeault–LaCarrere (BouLac), and quasi-normal scale elimination (QNSE). The methods use thresholds of virtual potential temperature Θυ, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), Θυ,z, or Richardson number. Those that identify h consistent with values found subjectively from modeled Θυ profiles are used for comparisons to fair-weather observations from the 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97).

The best method defines h as the lowest level at which Θυ,z = 2 K km−1, working for all four schemes, with little sensitivity to horizontal grid spacing. For BouLac, MYJ, and QNSE, TKE thresholds did poorly for runs with 1- and 3-km grid spacing, producing irregular h growth not consistent with Θυ-profile evolution. This resulted from the vertical velocity W associated with resolved CBL eddies: for W > 0, TKE profiles were deeper and Θυ profiles more unstable than for W < 0. For the 1-km runs, 25-point spatial averaging was needed for reliable TKE-based h estimates, but thresholds greater than free-atmosphere values were sensitive to horizontal grid spacing. Matching Θυ(h) to Θυ(0.05h) or Θυ at the first model level were often successful, but the absence of eddies for 9-km grids led to more unstable Θυ profiles and often deeper h.

Values of h for BouLac, MYJ, and QNSE, are mostly smaller than observed, with YSU values close to slightly high, consistent with earlier results.

Full access
T. N. Krishnamurti, Mukul Tewari, D. R. Chakraborty, Jose Marengo, Pedro L. Silva Dias, and P. Satyamurty

Abstract

Many frost events over southeastern Brazil are accompanied by a large-amplitude upper trough of the middle latitudes that extends well into the Tropics. This paper first illustrates that a mechanism of downstream amplification across the Pacific into South America is generally accompanied in these situations. This is manifested by troughs and ridges that propagate eastward. An analysis of these situations during frost events shows that these features of downstream amplification, illustrated on a Hovmöller (x–t) plot, can be decomposed into a family of synoptic-scale waves that propagate eastward and a family of planetary-scale waves that acquire a quasi-stationary character during the freeze event. It is shown that a global model, at a resolution of 70 km, can be used to predict these features on the decomposition of scales during freeze events. It became apparent from these features that the growth of the long stationary waves during the freeze events may be due to scale interaction among wave components. This paper discusses the nature of these scale interactions, calculated from the energetics in the wavenumber domain, for periods before, during, and after the freeze events. The salient results are that nonlinear barotropic-scale interactions are an important source for the maintenance of the downstream amplification; however, the baroclinic (in scale) contributions dominate through the life cycle of the downstream amplitude where the large-amplitude troughs are indeed accompanied by baroclinic features. Finally, it is shown that a very high resolution regional spectral model can be used to handle the local aspects of the freeze events. This study offers the possibility for designing prediction experiments on the medium-range timescales for the forecast of these frost events.

Full access
Shiguang Miao, Fei Chen, Margaret A. LeMone, Mukul Tewari, Qingchun Li, and Yingchun Wang

Abstract

In this paper, the characteristics of urban heat island (UHI) and boundary layer structures in the Beijing area, China, are analyzed using conventional and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) is used to simulate these urban weather features for comparison with observations. WRF is also used to test the sensitivity of model simulations to different urban land use scenarios and urban building structures to investigate the impacts of urbanization on surface weather and boundary layer structures. Results show that the coupled WRF/Noah/UCM modeling system seems to be able to reproduce the following observed features reasonably well: 1) the diurnal variation of UHI intensity; 2) the spatial distribution of UHI in Beijing; 3) the diurnal variation of wind speed and direction, and interactions between mountain–valley circulations and UHI; 4) small-scale boundary layer convective rolls and cells; and 5) the nocturnal boundary layer lower-level jet. The statistical analyses reveal that urban canopy variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed) from WRF/Noah/UCM compare better with surface observations than the conventional variables (e.g., 2-m temperature, 10-m wind speed). Both observations and the model show that the airflow over Beijing is dominated by mountain–valley flows that are modified by urban–rural circulations. Sensitivity tests imply that the presence or absence of urban surfaces significantly impacts the formation of horizontal convective rolls (HCRs), and the details in urban structures seem to have less pronounced but not negligible effects on HCRs.

Full access
Jiachuan Yang, Zhi-Hua Wang, Matei Georgescu, Fei Chen, and Mukul Tewari

Abstract

To enhance the capability of models in better characterizing the urban water cycle, physical parameterizations of urban hydrological processes have been implemented into the single-layer urban canopy model in the widely used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. While the new model has been evaluated offline against field measurements at various cities, its performance in online settings via coupling to atmospheric dynamics requires further examination. In this study, the impact of urban hydrological processes on regional hydrometeorology of the fully integrated WRF–urban modeling system for two major cities in the United States, namely, Phoenix and Houston, is assessed. Results show that including hydrological processes improves prediction of the 2-m dewpoint temperature, an indicative measure of coupled thermal and hydrological processes. The implementation of green roof systems as an urban mitigation strategy is then tested at the annual scale. The reduction of environmental temperature and increase of humidity by green roofs indicate strong diurnal and seasonal variations and are significantly affected by geographical and climatic conditions. Comparison with offline studies reveals that land–atmosphere interactions play a crucial role in determining the effect of green roofs.

Full access
Pallav Ray, Haochen Tan, Mukul Tewari, James Brownlee, R. S. Ajayamohan, and Bradford S. Barrett

Abstract

The role of advection of heat and momentum on the evolution of near-surface temperature and wind is evaluated in urban-aware simulations over Houston, Texas, under dry conditions on a light-wind day. Two sets of experiments, each consisting of four simulations using different planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes, were conducted over 48 h using the default urban scheme (BULK) and the single-layer urban canopy model (SLUCM) available within the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. We focus on understanding and quantifying the role played by temperature and momentum advection, particularly on the windward and leeward sides of the city. Previous studies have largely ignored any quantitative analysis of impacts from the advection of momentum over an urban area. The horizontal advection of temperature was found to be more important in the BULK because of the larger surface temperature gradient caused by warmer surface temperatures over urban areas than in the SLUCM. An analysis of the momentum budget shows that horizontal advection of zonal and meridional momentum plays a prominent role during the period of peak near-surface winds and that this effect is more pronounced in the windward side of the city. The local tendency in peak winds in the leeward side lags that in the windward side by about 1–2 h, similar to the lag found in horizontal momentum advection. The sensitivity of the results to different urban and PBL schemes was explored. The results imply that representation and influence of land-use patterns via sophisticated urban parameterizations generate locally driven winds that best resemble observations.

Full access