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I. Bischoff-Gauß, N. Kalthoff, and F. Fiedler

Abstract

The area between the Atlantic Ocean and São Paulo is highly polluted due to high emission rates at Cubatão, a city situated 15 km inland at a steep slope. It was expected that secondary circulations would develop caused by the land–sea contrast and strong orographic changes, which influence the transport and diffusion of air pollutants. In 1994–95, surface stations were operated and radiosonde ascents were performed to analyze the characteristic features of the land–sea-breeze circulation.

The stations make evident a land–sea-breeze system that arrived in the suburbs of São Paulo in the early afternoon. The upslope winds favor the propagation of the sea breeze at the steep slope. During the measurement period, large-scale northwesterly winds prevailed that advected warm air from the plateau to the coastal area in the afternoon and resulted in a limitation of the boundary layer growth. The data were used to initialize a three-dimensional mesoscale model for calculation of the transport and deposition of SO2 emitted at Cubatão. The boundary layer height was found to be a limitation for vertical mixing of the air pollutants. However, a step between the coastal boundary layer and the boundary layer over the plateau causes SO2 to be vented into the free atmosphere at the slope and then transported toward the Atlantic Ocean with the large-scale northwesterly winds. Thus, over the coastal area, the SO2 concentrations in the free atmosphere were even higher than within the mixed layer. The deposition, summed up over a day, was calculated and found to be strongest at the slope and over the Atlantic Ocean.

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C. Kottmeier, T. Reetz, P. Ruppert, and N. Kalthoff

Abstract

A new recoverable aerological sonde has been developed for studying mesoscale atmospheric processes. It allows for precise temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind measurements with (i) high spatial resolution (e.g., up to 100 m) as a parachute dropsonde version and (ii) high temporal resolution as balloon sonde version. The sonde comprises sensor elements of a commercial radiosonde, a 12-channel GPS receiver, a mobile telephone, a microcontroller as a central processing unit, a 4-Mbyte flash memory, a power pack, and a UHF transmitter. Data are stored internally and no data telemetry is used except for GPS data of the landing location, which are transmitted via mobile telephone for sonde recovery. Accurate offline differential GPS (DGPS) wind solutions are obtained by simultaneous GPS reception of a stationary receiver. Optionally, DGPS-based wind data may be obtained by reception of GPS corrections transmitted via VHF or satellite. After removal of selective availability from GPS signals in May 2000, winds based on GPS stand-alone solutions only are found to be of similar quality as DGPS winds. Arbitrarily, many sondes (typically 30 sondes) can be operated simultaneously and no ground-based or aircraft-based station is required for this purpose. Extensive tests of the dropsonde version have proved the reliability of the entire system and the acquired data. Due to the high probability of recovery, the possibility of multiple use without calibration or major refurbishment, and the optional extension by other sensors, the system is considered an alternative to standard sondes applied for research purposes.

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B. Wolf, C. Chwala, B. Fersch, J. Garvelmann, W. Junkermann, M. J. Zeeman, A. Angerer, B. Adler, C. Beck, C. Brosy, P. Brugger, S. Emeis, M. Dannenmann, F. De Roo, E. Diaz-Pines, E. Haas, M. Hagen, I. Hajnsek, J. Jacobeit, T. Jagdhuber, N. Kalthoff, R. Kiese, H. Kunstmann, O. Kosak, R. Krieg, C. Malchow, M. Mauder, R. Merz, C. Notarnicola, A. Philipp, W. Reif, S. Reineke, T. Rödiger, N. Ruehr, K. Schäfer, M. Schrön, A. Senatore, H. Shupe, I. Völksch, C. Wanninger, S. Zacharias, and H. P. Schmid

Abstract

ScaleX is a collaborative measurement campaign, collocated with a long-term environmental observatory of the German Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) network in the mountainous terrain of the Bavarian Prealps, Germany. The aims of both TERENO and ScaleX include the measurement and modeling of land surface–atmosphere interactions of energy, water, and greenhouse gases. ScaleX is motivated by the recognition that long-term intensive observational research over years or decades must be based on well-proven, mostly automated measurement systems, concentrated in a small number of locations. In contrast, short-term intensive campaigns offer the opportunity to assess spatial distributions and gradients by concentrated instrument deployments, and by mobile sensors (ground and/or airborne) to obtain transects and three-dimensional patterns of atmospheric, surface, or soil variables and processes. Moreover, intensive campaigns are ideal proving grounds for innovative instruments, methods, and techniques to measure quantities that cannot (yet) be automated or deployed over long time periods. ScaleX is distinctive in its design, which combines the benefits of a long-term environmental-monitoring approach (TERENO) with the versatility and innovative power of a series of intensive campaigns, to bridge across a wide span of spatial and temporal scales. This contribution presents the concept and first data products of ScaleX-2015, which occurred in June–July 2015. The second installment of ScaleX took place in summer 2016 and periodic further ScaleX campaigns are planned throughout the lifetime of TERENO. This paper calls for collaboration in future ScaleX campaigns or to use our data in modelling studies. It is also an invitation to emulate the ScaleX concept at other long-term observatories.

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C. Flamant, P. Knippertz, A. H. Fink, A. Akpo, B. Brooks, C. J. Chiu, H. Coe, S. Danuor, M. Evans, O. Jegede, N. Kalthoff, A. Konaré, C. Liousse, F. Lohou, C. Mari, H. Schlager, A. Schwarzenboeck, B. Adler, L. Amekudzi, J. Aryee, M. Ayoola, A. M. Batenburg, G. Bessardon, S. Borrmann, J. Brito, K. Bower, F. Burnet, V. Catoire, A. Colomb, C. Denjean, K. Fosu-Amankwah, P. G. Hill, J. Lee, M. Lothon, M. Maranan, J. Marsham, R. Meynadier, J.-B. Ngamini, P. Rosenberg, D. Sauer, V. Smith, G. Stratmann, J. W. Taylor, C. Voigt, and V. Yoboué

Abstract

The European Union (EU)-funded project Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) investigates the relationship between weather, climate, and air pollution in southern West Africa—an area with rapid population growth, urbanization, and an increase in anthropogenic aerosol emissions. The air over this region contains a unique mixture of natural and anthropogenic gases, liquid droplets, and particles, emitted in an environment in which multilayer clouds frequently form. These exert a large influence on the local weather and climate, mainly owing to their impact on radiation, the surface energy balance, and thus the diurnal cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer.

In June and July 2016, DACCIWA organized a major international field campaign in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria. Three supersites in Kumasi, Savè, and Ile-Ife conducted permanent measurements and 15 intensive observation periods. Three European aircraft together flew 50 research flights between 27 June and 16 July 2016, for a total of 155 h. DACCIWA scientists launched weather balloons several times a day across the region (772 in total), measured urban emissions, and evaluated health data. The main objective was to build robust statistics of atmospheric composition, dynamics, and low-level cloud properties in various chemical landscapes to investigate their mutual interactions.

This article presents an overview of the DACCIWA field campaign activities as well as some first research highlights. The rich data obtained during the campaign will be made available to the scientific community and help to advance scientific understanding, modeling, and monitoring of the atmosphere over southern West Africa.

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Keith A. Browning, Alan M. Blyth, Peter A. Clark, Ulrich Corsmeier, Cyril J. Morcrette, Judith L. Agnew, Sue P. Ballard, Dave Bamber, Christian Barthlott, Lindsay J. Bennett, Karl M. Beswick, Mark Bitter, Karen E. Bozier, Barbara J. Brooks, Chris G. Collier, Fay Davies, Bernhard Deny, Mark A. Dixon, Thomas Feuerle, Richard M. Forbes, Catherine Gaffard, Malcolm D. Gray, Rolf Hankers, Tim J. Hewison, Norbert Kalthoff, Samiro Khodayar, Martin Kohler, Christoph Kottmeier, Stephan Kraut, Michael Kunz, Darcy N. Ladd, Humphrey W. Lean, Jürgen Lenfant, Zhihong Li, John Marsham, James McGregor, Stephan D. Mobbs, John Nicol, Emily Norton, Douglas J. Parker, Felicity Perry, Markus Ramatschi, Hugo M. A. Ricketts, Nigel M. Roberts, Andrew Russell, Helmut Schulz, Elizabeth C. Slack, Geraint Vaughan, Joe Waight, David P. Wareing, Robert J. Watson, Ann R. Webb, and Andreas Wieser

The Convective Storm Initiation Project (CSIP) is an international project to understand precisely where, when, and how convective clouds form and develop into showers in the mainly maritime environment of southern England. A major aim of CSIP is to compare the results of the very high resolution Met Office weather forecasting model with detailed observations of the early stages of convective clouds and to use the newly gained understanding to improve the predictions of the model.

A large array of ground-based instruments plus two instrumented aircraft, from the U.K. National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and the German Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK), Karlsruhe, were deployed in southern England, over an area centered on the meteorological radars at Chilbolton, during the summers of 2004 and 2005. In addition to a variety of ground-based remote-sensing instruments, numerous rawinsondes were released at one- to two-hourly intervals from six closely spaced sites. The Met Office weather radar network and Meteosat satellite imagery were used to provide context for the observations made by the instruments deployed during CSIP.

This article presents an overview of the CSIP field campaign and examples from CSIP of the types of convective initiation phenomena that are typical in the United Kingdom. It shows the way in which certain kinds of observational data are able to reveal these phenomena and gives an explanation of how the analyses of data from the field campaign will be used in the development of an improved very high resolution NWP model for operational use.

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