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A. M. Moore, N. S. Cooper, and D. L. T. Anderson


Numerical experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of updating models of the Indian Ocean using simulated temperature (mass) and velocity data. Two models are used: a linear reduced gravity model with one active layer, and a nonlinear 12-level general circulation model (GCM). In both cases an “identical twin” approach is adopted, in which the same model is used to generate the “observed” data in a “truth run”, as is used in the assimilation run.

Temperature data is found to be better than velocity data for initializing both models. However, further experiments with the layer model showed that increasing the model diffusion and decreasing the eddy viscosity results in velocity data being better for initializing. These results are ascribed to the energy distribution, with the proportion of kinetic energy being greater in the later experiments.

Simulated data from the proposed TOGA Indian Ocean XBT network were also assimilated into both models using a successive correction interpolation scheme. It is found that for the layer model, which had smooth horizontal variations in thermocline depth, the errors fall to zero within a couple of months. However, in the experiments with the GCM there is little reduction in the assimilation error after the first model update, due to the data analysis scheme not being able to resolve the horizontal temperature structure in the GCM.

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M. Andrejczuk, F. C. Cooper, S. Juricke, T. N. Palmer, A. Weisheimer, and L. Zanna


Stochastic parameterization provides a methodology for representing model uncertainty in ensemble forecasts. Here the impact on forecast reliability over seasonal time scales of three existing stochastic parameterizations in the ocean component of a coupled model is studied. The relative impacts of these schemes upon the ocean mean state and ensemble spread are analyzed. The oceanic variability induced by the atmospheric forcing of the coupled system is, in most regions, the major source of ensemble spread. The largest impact on spread and bias came from the stochastically perturbed parameterization tendency (SPPT) scheme, which has proven particularly effective in the atmosphere. The key regions affected are eddy-active regions, namely, the western boundary currents and the Southern Ocean where ensemble spread is increased. However, unlike its impact in the atmosphere, SPPT in the ocean did not result in a significant decrease in forecast error on seasonal time scales. While there are good grounds for implementing stochastic schemes in ocean models, the results suggest that they will have to be more sophisticated. Some suggestions for next-generation stochastic schemes are made.

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C. A. McLinden, A. E. Bourassa, S. Brohede, M. Cooper, D. A. Degenstein, W. J. F. Evans, R. L. Gattinger, C. S. Haley, E. J. Llewellyn, N. D. Lloyd, P. Loewen, R. V. Martin, J. C. McConnell, I. C. McDade, D. Murtagh, L. Rieger, C. von Savigny, P. E. Sheese, C. E. Sioris, B. Solheim, and K. Strong

On 20 February 2001, a converted Russian ICBM delivered Odin, a small Swedish satellite, into low Earth orbit. One of the sensors onboard is a small Canadian spectrometer called OSIRIS. By measuring scattered sunlight from Earth's horizon, or limb, OSIRIS is able to deduce the abundance of trace gases and particles from the upper troposphere into the lower thermosphere. Designed and built on a modest budget, OSIRIS has exceeded not only its 2-yr lifetime but also all expectations. With more than a decade of continuous data, OSIRIS has recorded over 1.8 million limb scans. The complexities associated with unraveling scattered light in order to convert OSIRIS spectra into highquality geophysical profiles have forced the OSIRIS team to develop leading-edge algorithms and computer models. These profiles are being used to help address many science questions, including the coupling of atmospheric regions (e.g., stratosphere–troposphere exchange) and the budgets and trends in ozone, nitrogen, bromine, and other species. One specific example is the distribution and abundance of upper-tropospheric, lightning-produced reactive nitrogen and ozone. Arguably OSIRIS's most important contributions come from its aerosol measurements, including detection and characterization of subvisual cirrus and polar stratospheric and mesospheric clouds. OSIRIS also provides a unique view of the stratospheric aerosol layer, and it is able to identify and track perturbations from volcanic activity and biomass burning.

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Robert J. H. Dunn, F. Aldred, Nadine Gobron, John B. Miller, Kate M. Willett, M. Ades, Robert Adler, Richard, P. Allan, Rob Allan, J. Anderson, Anthony Argüez, C. Arosio, John A. Augustine, C. Azorin-Molina, J. Barichivich, H. E. Beck, Andreas Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Angela Benedetti, David I. Berry, Stephen Blenkinsop, Olivier Bock, X. Bodin, Michael G. Bosilovich, Olivier Boucher, S. A. Buehler, B. Calmettes, Laura Carrea, Laura Castia, Hanne H. Christiansen, John R. Christy, E.-S. Chung, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Owen R. Cooper, Richard C. Cornes, Curt Covey, J.-F. Cretaux, M. Crotwell, Sean M. Davis, Richard A. M. de Jeu, Doug Degenstein, R. Delaloye, Larry Di Girolamo, Markus G. Donat, Wouter A. Dorigo, Imke Durre, Geoff S. Dutton, Gregory Duveiller, James W. Elkins, Vitali E. Fioletov, Johannes Flemming, Michael J. Foster, Stacey M. Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, J. Garforth, Matthew Gentry, S. K. Gupta, S. Hahn, Leopold Haimberger, Brad D. Hall, Ian Harris, D. L. Hemming, M. Hirschi, Shu-pen (Ben) Ho, F. Hrbacek, Daan Hubert, Dale F. Hurst, Antje Inness, K. Isaksen, Viju O. John, Philip D. Jones, Robert Junod, J. W. Kaiser, V. Kaufmann, A. Kellerer-Pirklbauer, Elizabeth C. Kent, R. Kidd, Hyungjun Kim, Z. Kipling, A. Koppa, B. M. Kraemer, D. P. Kratz, Xin Lan, Kathleen O. Lantz, D. Lavers, Norman G. Loeb, Diego Loyola, R. Madelon, Michael Mayer, M. F. McCabe, Tim R. McVicar, Carl A. Mears, Christopher J. Merchant, Diego G. Miralles, L. Moesinger, Stephen A. Montzka, Colin Morice, L. Mösinger, Jens Mühle, Julien P. Nicolas, Jeannette Noetzli, Ben Noll, J. O’Keefe, Tim J. Osborn, T. Park, A. J. Pasik, C. Pellet, Maury S. Pelto, S. E. Perkins-Kirkpatrick, G. Petron, Coda Phillips, S. Po-Chedley, L. Polvani, W. Preimesberger, D. G. Rains, W. J. Randel, Nick A. Rayner, Samuel Rémy, L. Ricciardulli, A. D. Richardson, David A. Robinson, Matthew Rodell, N. J. Rodríguez-Fernández, K.H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, A. Rozanov, T. Rutishäuser, Ahira Sánchez-Lugo, P. Sawaengphokhai, T. Scanlon, Verena Schenzinger, R. W. Schlegel, S. Sharma, Lei Shi, Adrian J. Simmons, Carolina Siso, Sharon L. Smith, B. J. Soden, Viktoria Sofieva, T. H. Sparks, Paul W. Stackhouse Jr., Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Martin Stengel, Dimitri A. Streletskiy, Sunny Sun-Mack, P. Tans, S. J. Thackeray, E. Thibert, D. Tokuda, Kleareti Tourpali, Mari R. Tye, Ronald van der A, Robin van der Schalie, Gerard van der Schrier, M. van der Vliet, Guido R. van der Werf, A. Vance, Jean-Paul Vernier, Isaac J. Vimont, Holger Vömel, Russell S. Vose, Ray Wang, Markus Weber, David Wiese, Anne C. Wilber, Jeanette D. Wild, Takmeng Wong, R. Iestyn Woolway, Xinjia Zhou, Xungang Yin, Guangyu Zhao, Lin Zhao, Jerry R. Ziemke, Markus Ziese, and R. M. Zotta
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