Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for

  • Author or Editor: N. Trendafilov x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
A. Hannachi and N. Trendafilov

Abstract

Conventional analysis methods in weather and climate science (e.g., EOF analysis) exhibit a number of drawbacks including scaling and mixing. These methods focus mostly on the bulk of the probability distribution of the system in state space and overlook its tail. This paper explores a different method, the archetypal analysis (AA), which focuses precisely on the extremes. AA seeks to approximate the convex hull of the data in state space by finding “corners” that represent “pure” types or archetypes through computing mixture weight matrices. The method is quite new in climate science, although it has been around for about two decades in pattern recognition. It encompasses, in particular, the virtues of EOFs and clustering. The method is presented along with a new manifold-based optimization algorithm that optimizes for the weights simultaneously, unlike the conventional multistep algorithm based on the alternating constrained least squares. The paper discusses the numerical solution and then applies it to the monthly sea surface temperature (SST) from HadISST and to the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) using sea level pressure (SLP) from ERA-40 over the Asian monsoon region. The application to SST reveals, in particular, three archetypes, namely, El Niño, La Niña, and a third pattern representing the western boundary currents. The latter archetype shows a particular trend in the last few decades. The application to the ASM SLP anomalies yields archetypes that are consistent with the ASM regimes found in the literature. Merits and weaknesses of the method along with possible future development are also discussed.

Full access
A. Hannachi, S. Unkel, N. T. Trendafilov, and I. T. Jolliffe

Abstract

The complexity inherent in climate data makes it necessary to introduce more than one statistical tool to the researcher to gain insight into the climate system. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is one of the most widely used methods to analyze weather/climate modes of variability and to reduce the dimensionality of the system. Simple structure rotation of EOFs can enhance interpretability of the obtained patterns but cannot provide anything more than temporal uncorrelatedness. In this paper, an alternative rotation method based on independent component analysis (ICA) is considered. The ICA is viewed here as a method of EOF rotation. Starting from an initial EOF solution rather than rotating the loadings toward simplicity, ICA seeks a rotation matrix that maximizes the independence between the components in the time domain. If the underlying climate signals have an independent forcing, one can expect to find loadings with interpretable patterns whose time coefficients have properties that go beyond simple noncorrelation observed in EOFs. The methodology is presented and an application to monthly means sea level pressure (SLP) field is discussed. Among the rotated (to independence) EOFs, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) pattern, an Arctic Oscillation–like pattern, and a Scandinavian-like pattern have been identified. There is the suggestion that the NAO is an intrinsic mode of variability independent of the Pacific.

Full access