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Nachiketa Acharya, Allan Frei, Jie Chen, Leslie DeCristofaro, and Emmet M. Owens


Watersheds located in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State contribute about 90% of the water to the New York City water supply system. Recent studies show that this region is experiencing increasing trends in total precipitation and extreme precipitation events. To assess the impact of this and other possible climatic changes on the water supply, there is a need to develop future climate scenarios that can be used as input to hydrological and reservoir models. Recently, stochastic weather generators (SWGs) have been used in climate change adaptation studies because of their ability to produce synthetic weather time series. This study examines the performance of a set of SWGs with varying levels of complexity to simulate daily precipitation characteristics, with a focus on extreme events. To generate precipitation occurrence, three Markov chain models (first, second, and third orders) were evaluated in terms of simulating average and extreme wet days and dry/wet spell lengths. For precipitation magnitude, seven models were investigated, including five parametric distributions, one resampling technique, and a polynomial-based curve fitting technique. The methodology applied here to evaluate SWGs combines several different types of metrics that are not typically combined in a single analysis. It is found that the first-order Markov chain performs as well as higher orders for simulating precipitation occurrence, and two parametric distribution models (skewed normal and mixed exponential) are deemed best for simulating precipitation magnitudes. The specific models that were found to be most applicable to the region may be valuable in bottom-up vulnerability studies for the watershed, as well as for other nearby basins.

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Carlo Montes, Nachiketa Acharya, S. M. Quamrul Hassan, and Timothy J. Krupnik


Extreme precipitation events are a serious threat to societal well-being over rainy areas such as Bangladesh. The reliability of studies of extreme events depends on data quality and their spatial and temporal distribution, although these subjects remain with knowledge gaps in many countries. This work focuses on the analysis of four satellite-based precipitation products for monitoring intense rainfall events: the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Station Data (CHIRPS), the PERSIANN–Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR), the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals (IMERG), and the CPC morphing technique (CMORPH). Five indices of intense rainfall were considered for the period 2000–19 and a set of 31 rain gauges for evaluation. The number and amount of precipitation associated with intense rainfall events are systematically underestimated or overestimated throughout the country. While random errors are higher over the wetter and higher-elevation northeastern and southeastern parts of Bangladesh, biases are more homogeneous. CHIRPS, PERSIANN-CDR, and IMERG perform similar for capturing total seasonal rainfall, but variability is better represented by CHIRPS and IMERG. Better results were obtained by IMERG, followed by PERSIANN-CDR and CHIRPS, in terms of climatological intensity indices based on percentiles, although the three products exhibited systematic errors. IMERG and CMORPH systematically overestimate the occurrence of intense precipitation events. IMERG showed the best performance representing events over a value of 20 mm day−1; CMORPH exhibited random and systematic errors strongly associated with a poor representation of interannual variability in seasonal total rainfall. The results suggest that the datasets have different potential uses and such differences should be considered in future applications regarding extreme rainfall events and risk assessment in Bangladesh.

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