Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 9 of 9 items for

  • Author or Editor: Nadir Jeevanjee x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Nadir Jeevanjee and Stephan Fueglistaler

During the publication process for Jeevanjee and Fueglistaler (2020), several production errors occurred that need correction. First, units of W m−2 cm−1 were presented for the net upward LW flux in section 2b and for hemispherically integrated Planck emission in Eq. (17) in section 4a, instead of the correct W m−2 cm. Another unit error appears in Table 1, where units of K day−1 cm−1 are shown instead of the correct K day−1 cm for the spectrally resolved clear-sky longwave heating rate.

A formatting error occurred

Free access
Nadir Jeevanjee and Stephan Fueglistaler

Abstract

The cooling-to-space (CTS) approximation says that the radiative cooling of an atmospheric layer is dominated by that layer’s emission to space, while radiative exchange with layers above and below largely cancel. Though the CTS approximation has been demonstrated empirically and is thus fairly well accepted, a theoretical justification is lacking. Furthermore, the intuition behind the CTS approximation cannot be universally valid, as the CTS approximation fails in the case of pure radiative equilibrium. Motivated by this, we investigate the CTS approximation in detail. We frame the CTS approximation in terms of a novel decomposition of radiative flux divergence, which better captures the cancellation of exchange terms. We also derive validity criteria for the CTS approximation, using simple analytical theory. We apply these criteria in the context of both gray gas pure radiative equilibrium (PRE) and radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE) to understand how the CTS approximation arises and why it fails in PRE. When applied to realistic gases in RCE, these criteria predict that the CTS approximation should hold well for H2O but less so for CO2, a conclusion we verify with line-by-line radiative transfer calculations. Along the way we also discuss the well-known “τ = 1 law,” and its dependence on the choice of vertical coordinate.

Free access
Nadir Jeevanjee and Stephan Fueglistaler

During the publication process for Jeevanjee and Fueglistaler (2020), several production errors occurred that need correction. First, in section 5 after Eq. (19), an incorrect inequality sign was used. The affected sentence should read “Physically, the τ = 1 law holds for such coordinates because τ ≈ 1 is a ‘sweet spot,’ in between τ 1 (where the optical depth gradient / goes to 0) and τ 1 (where the transmissivity e τ goes to 0).”

The second correction involves the

Free access
Daniel Lecoanet and Nadir Jeevanjee

Abstract

Entrainment in cumulus convection remains ill understood and difficult to quantify. For instance, entrainment is widely believed to be a fundamentally turbulent process, even though Turner pointed out in 1957 that dry thermals entrain primarily because of buoyancy (via a dynamical constraint requiring an increase in radius r). Furthermore, entrainment has been postulated to obey a 1/r scaling, but this scaling has not been firmly established. Here, we study the classic case of dry thermals in a neutrally stratified environment using fully resolved direct numerical simulation. We combine this with a thermal tracking algorithm that defines a control volume for the thermal at each time, allowing us to directly measure entrainment. We vary the Reynolds number (Re) of our thermals between laminar (Re ≈ 600) and turbulent (Re ≈ 6000) regimes, finding only a 20% variation in entrainment rate ε, supporting the claim that turbulence is not necessary for entrainment. We also directly verify the postulated ε ~ 1/r scaling law.

Free access
Nadir Jeevanjee and Stephan Fueglistaler

Abstract

Atmospheric radiative cooling is a fundamental aspect of Earth’s greenhouse effect, and is intrinsically connected to atmospheric motions. At the same time, basic aspects of longwave radiative cooling, such as its characteristic value of 2 K day−1, its sharp decline (or “kink”) in the upper troposphere, and the large values of CO2 cooling in the stratosphere, are difficult to understand intuitively or estimate with pencil and paper. Here we pursue such understanding by building simple spectral (rather than gray) models for clear-sky radiative cooling. We construct these models by combining the cooling-to-space approximation with simplified greenhouse gas spectroscopy and analytical expressions for optical depth, and we validate these simple models with line-by-line calculations. We find that cooling rates can be expressed as a product of the Planck function, a vertical emissivity gradient, and a characteristic spectral width derived from our simplified spectroscopy. This expression allows for a pencil-and-paper estimate of the 2 K day−1 tropospheric cooling rate, as well as an explanation of enhanced CO2 cooling rates in the stratosphere. We also link the upper-tropospheric kink in radiative cooling to the distribution of H2O absorption coefficients, and from this derive an analytical expression for the kink temperature T kink ≈ 220 K. A further, ancillary result is that gray models fail to reproduce basic features of atmospheric radiative cooling.

Free access
Nadir Jeevanjee and David M. Romps

Abstract

The Davies-Jones formulation of effective buoyancy is used to define inertial and buoyant components of vertical force and to develop an intuition for these components by considering simple cases. This decomposition is applied to the triggering of new boundary layer mass flux by cold pools in a cloud-resolving simulation of radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE). The triggering is found to be dominated by inertial forces, and this is explained by estimating the ratio of the inertial forcing to the buoyancy forcing, which scales as H/h, where H is the characteristic height of the initial downdraft and h is the characteristic height of the mature cold pool’s gust front. In a simulation of the transition from shallow to deep convection, the buoyancy forcing plays a dominant role in triggering mass flux in the shallow regime, but the force balance tips in favor of inertial forcing just as precipitation sets in, consistent with the RCE results.

Full access
Nathaniel Tarshish, Nadir Jeevanjee, and Daniel Lecoanet

Abstract

By introducing an equivalence between magnetostatics and the equations governing buoyant motion, we derive analytical expressions for the acceleration of isolated density anomalies (thermals). In particular, we investigate buoyant acceleration, defined as the sum of the Archimedean buoyancy B and an associated perturbation pressure gradient. For the case of a uniform spherical thermal, the anomaly fluid accelerates at 2B/3, extending the textbook result for the induced mass of a solid sphere to the case of a fluid sphere. For a more general ellipsoidal thermal, we show that the buoyant acceleration is a simple analytical function of the ellipsoid’s aspect ratio. The relevance of these idealized uniform-density results to turbulent thermals is explored by analyzing direct numerical simulations of thermals at a Reynolds number (Re) of 6300. We find that our results fully characterize a thermal’s initial motion over a distance comparable to its length. Beyond this buoyancy-dominated regime, a thermal develops an ellipsoidal vortex circulation and begins to entrain environmental fluid. Our analytical expressions do not describe the total acceleration of this mature thermal, but they still accurately relate the buoyant acceleration to the thermal’s mean Archimedean buoyancy and aspect ratio. Thus, our analytical formulas provide a simple and direct means of estimating the buoyant acceleration of turbulent thermals.

Full access
Nadir Jeevanjee, Jacob T. Seeley, David Paynter, and Stephan Fueglistaler

Abstract

Clear-sky CO2 forcing is known to vary significantly over the globe, but the state dependence that controls this is not well understood. Here we extend the formalism of Wilson and Gea-Banacloche to obtain a quantitatively accurate analytical model for spatially varying instantaneous CO2 forcing, which depends only on surface temperature T s, stratospheric temperature, and column relative humidity (RH). This model shows that CO2 forcing can be considered a swap of surface emission for stratospheric emission, and thus depends primarily on surface–stratosphere temperature contrast. The strong meridional gradient in CO2 forcing is thus largely due to the strong meridional gradient in T s. In the tropics and midlatitudes, however, the presence of H2O modulates the forcing by replacing surface emission with RH-dependent atmospheric emission. This substantially reduces the forcing in the tropics, introduces forcing variations due to spatially varying RH, and sets an upper limit (with respect to T s variations) on CO2 forcing that is reached in the present-day tropics. In addition, we extend our analytical model to the instantaneous tropopause forcing, and find that this forcing depends on T s only, with no dependence on stratospheric temperature. We also analyze the τ = 1 approximation for the emission level and derive an exact formula for the emission level, which yields values closer to τ = 1/2 than to τ = 1.

Open access
Raphaël Rousseau-Rizzi, Timothy M. Merlis, and Nadir Jeevanjee

Abstract

Tropical cyclone (TC) potential intensity (PI) theory has a well-known form, consistent with a Carnot cycle interpretation of TC energetics, which relates PI to mean environmental conditions: the difference between surface and TC outflow temperatures and the air–sea enthalpy disequilibrium. PI has also been defined as a difference in convective available potential energy (CAPE) between two parcels, and quantitative assessments of future changes make use of a numerical algorithm based on this definition. Here, an analysis shows the conditions under which these Carnot and CAPE-based PI definitions are equivalent. There are multiple conditions, not previously enumerated, which in particular reveal a role for irreversible entropy production from surface evaporation. This mathematical analysis is verified by numerical calculations of PI’s sensitivity to large changes in surface-air relative humidity. To gain physical insight into the connection between the CAPE and Carnot formulations of PI, we use a recently developed analytic theory for CAPE to derive, starting from the CAPE-based definition, a new approximate formula for PI that nearly recovers the previous Carnot PI formula. The derivation shows that the difference in undilute buoyancies of saturated and environmental parcels that determines CAPE PI can in fact be expressed as a difference in the parcels’ surface moist static energy, providing a physical link between the Carnot and CAPE formulations of PI. This combination of analysis and physical interpretation builds confidence in previous numerical CAPE-based PI calculations that use climate model projections of the future tropical environment.

Restricted access