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Neil F. Laird
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Nicholas D. Metz
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Neil F. Laird
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Nicholas D. Metz
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Nicholas D. Metz
and
Lance F. Bosart

Abstract

From 3 to 5 July 2003 during the Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment (BAMEX), multiple mesoscale convective systems (MCSs 1 and 2) and derechos (derechos AN , AS, A, BW, and BE) progressed across a preferred upper Midwest corridor. The derechos evolved in a favorable synoptic-scale environment. However, the environmental details associated with each derecho, such as the characteristics of the initial surface boundary, the formation position relative to the upper-level jet stream, the presence of an upper-level mesoscale disturbance, and the CAPE/shear environment varied from derecho to derecho.

The MCSs and derechos composed three distinct convective episodes. Multiple mesoscale interactions between the MCSs and derechos and the environment altered the character and longevity of these episodes. The first convective episode consisted of derecho A, which formed from merging derechos AN and AS (northern and southern systems, respectively). The ∼200-hPa-deep cold pool associated with derecho A decreased surface potential temperatures by 4–8 K. MCS 1 dissipated upon entering this cold pool and an inertia–gravity wave was emitted that helped to spawn MCS 2. This inertia–gravity wave connected MCSs 1 and 2 into a compound convective episode. As derecho BW (western system) approached a strong surface boundary across Iowa created by the cold pools of derecho A and MCS 1, derecho BE (eastern system) formed. The remnants of derecho BW merged with derecho BE creating another compound convective episode.

The upscale effects resulting from this active convective period directly affected subsequent convective development. Upper-level diabatic heating associated with derecho A resulted in NCEP GFS 66-h negative 1000–500-hPa thickness errors of 4–8 dam (forecast too cold) and negative 200-hPa wind errors of 10–20 m s−1 (forecast too weak). The resulting stronger than forecast 200-hPa jet stream likely increased synoptic-scale forcing for the formation and evolution of derecho BW.

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Alicia M. Bentley
and
Nicholas D. Metz

Abstract

In early November 2006, an unnamed tropical cyclone (TC) formed via the tropical transition (TT) process at 42°N over the eastern North Pacific. An extratropical cyclone (EC), developing downstream of a thinning upper-tropospheric trough over the eastern North Pacific, served as the precursor disturbance that would ultimately undergo TT. The TT of the unnamed TC was extremely unusualoccurring over ~16°C sea surface temperatures in a portion of the eastern North Pacific basin historically devoid of TC activity.

This paper 1) identifies the upper- and lower-tropospheric features linked to the formation of the EC that transitions into the unnamed TC, 2) provides a synoptic overview of the features and processes associated with the unnamed TC’s TT, and 3) discusses the landfall of the weakening cyclone along the west coast of North America. As observed in previous studies of TT, the precursor EC progresses through the life cycle of a marine extratropical frontal cyclone, developing a bent-back warm front on its northern and western sides and undergoing a warm seclusion process. Backward air parcel trajectories suggest that air parcels isolated in the center of the transitioning cyclone were warmed in the lower troposphere via sensible heating from the underlying sea surface. Vertical cross sections taken through the center of the cyclone during its life cycle reveal its transformation from an asymmetric, cold-core, EC into an axisymmetric, warm-core, TC during TT. Ensemble reforecasts initialized after TT highlight the relatively low forecast skill associated with the landfall of the weakening cyclone.

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Caitlin C. Crossett
and
Nicholas D. Metz

Abstract

Equatorward-moving cold surges occur along the lee of high terrain during the cold season. Even though the east coast of Africa features high terrain, little research exists on cold surges along the African highlands despite the fact that these surges could have potentially large agricultural and societal effects. This paper examines a 5-yr climatology of the most extreme African-highlands cold surges spanning the 2008–12 period. During these years, 186 cold surges occurred to the lee of the African highlands, with 84 events extending between 30° and 35°S (type 1), 27 extending between 25° and 30°S (type 2), and 75 extending equatorward of 25°S (type 3) based on the 1000–850-hPa thickness pattern. This climatology reveals that extreme African-highlands cold surges have a climatological maximum in September. Cold surges of type 1 and type 2 tend to occur throughout the Southern Hemisphere winter and spring, whereas surges of type 3 are generally confined to the winter months. These cold surges can last from 2 to 8 days, with the highest frequency of events spanning a 3-day period. A typical cold-surge event features maximum 925-hPa meridional flow of 30.0–39.9 kt (1 kt = 0.51 m s−1) that most frequently advects cold Antarctic air to between 15.0° and 24.9°S and at times as far as the equator.

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Matthew C. Sanders
,
Jason M. Cordeira
, and
Nicholas D. Metz

Abstract

Ice jams that occurred on the Pemigewasset River in central New Hampshire resulted in significant localized flooding on 26 February 2017 and 13 January 2018. Analyses of these two case studies shows that both ice jam events occurred in association with enhanced moisture transport characteristic of atmospheric rivers (ARs) that resulted in rain-on-snow, snowpack ablation, and rapid increases in streamflow across central New Hampshire. However, while the ice jams and ARs that preceded them were similar, the antecedent hydrometeorological characteristics of the region were different. The February 2017 event featured a “long melting period with low precipitation” scenario, with several days of warm (~5°–20°C) maximum surface temperatures that resulted in extensive snowmelt followed by short-duration, weak AR that produced ~10–15 mm of precipitation during a 6-h period prior to the formation of the ice jam. Alternatively, the January 2018 event featured a “short melting period with high precipitation” scenario with snowmelt that occurred primarily during a more intense and long-duration AR that produced >50 mm of rainfall during a 30-h period prior to the formation of the ice jam. Composite analysis of 20 ice jam events during 1981–2019 illustrates that 19 of 20 events were preceded by environments characterized by ARs along the U.S. East Coast and occur in association with a composite corridor of enhanced integrated water vapor > 25 mm collocated with integrated water vapor transport magnitudes > 600 kg m−1 s−1. Additional analyses suggest that most ice jams on the Pemigewasset River share many common synoptic-scale antecedent meteorological characteristics that may provide situational awareness for future events.

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Nicholas D. Metz
,
David M. Schultz
, and
Robert H. Johns

Abstract

Extratropical cyclones over the central United States and southern Canada from the years 1982 and 1989 were examined for the presence of two or more (multiple) warm-front-like baroclinic zones, hereafter called MWFL baroclinic zones. Of the 108 cyclones identified during this period, 42% were found to have MWFL baroclinic zones, where a baroclinic zone was defined as a magnitude of the surface temperature gradient of 8°F (4.4°C) 220 km−1 over a length of at least 440 km. The largest frequency of cyclones with MWFL baroclinic zones occurred during April, May, August, and September. Ninety-four percent of all baroclinic zones were coincident with a magnitude of the dewpoint temperature gradient of at least 4°F (2.2°C) 220 km−1, and 81% of all baroclinic zones possessed a wind shift of at least 20°, suggesting that these baroclinic zones were significant airmass and airstream boundaries. Although cyclones with MWFL baroclinic zones formed in a variety of ways, two synoptic patterns dominated. Thirty-eight percent of cyclones with MWFL baroclinic zones formed as a cold or stationary front from a previous cyclonic system was drawn into the circulation of a cyclone center, forming the southern baroclinic zone. Twenty-two percent of cyclones with MWFL baroclinic zones formed as a cold front to the north of the cyclone center was drawn into the circulation of the cyclone, forming the northern baroclinic zone. Other synoptic patterns included outflow boundaries (9%), chinook fronts (4%), return flow from the Gulf of Mexico (4%), and unclassified (22%). Although the frequency of severe weather in cyclones was roughly the same for cyclones with and without MWFL baroclinic zones, the presence of the southern baroclinic zone provided a mechanism to focus the location of severe weather, showing their utility for severe weather forecasting. Despite the potential for severe convective storms along these southern baroclinic zones, 51% were not identified on the National Meteorological Center (now known as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction) surface analyses, indicating the importance of performing real-time surface isotherm analysis.

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Joshua D. Sandstrom
,
Jason M. Cordeira
,
Eric G. Hoffman
, and
Nicholas D. Metz

Abstract

Lake-effect precipitation is convective precipitation produced by relatively cold air passing over large and relatively warm bodies of water. This phenomenon most often occurs in North America over the southern and eastern shores of the Great Lakes, where high annual snowfalls and high-impact snowstorms frequently occur under prevailing west and northwest flow. Locally higher snow or rainfall amounts also occur as a result of lake-enhanced synoptic precipitation when conditionally unstable or neutrally stratified air is present in the lower troposphere. Although likely less common, lake-effect and lake-enhanced precipitation can also occur with easterly winds, impacting the western shores of the Great Lakes. This study describes a 15-yr climatology of easterly lake-effect (ELEfP) and lake-enhanced (ELEnP) precipitation [conjointly, easterly lake collective precipitation (ELCP)] events that developed in east-to-east-northeasterly flow over western Lake Superior from 2003 to 2018. ELCP occurs infrequently but often enough to have a notable climatological impact over western Lake Superior, with an average of 14.6 events per year. The morphology favors both single shore-parallel ELEfP bands due to the convex western shoreline of Lake Superior and mixed-type banding due to ELEnP events occurring in association with “overrunning” synoptic-scale precipitation. ELEfP often occurs in association with a surface anticyclone to the north of Lake Superior. ELEnP typically features a similar northerly displaced anticyclone and a surface cyclone located over the upper Midwest that favor easterly boundary layer winds over western Lake Superior.

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Jason M. Cordeira
,
Nicholas D. Metz
,
Macy E. Howarth
, and
Thomas J. Galarneau Jr.

Abstract

Two severe MCSs over the upper Midwest United States resulted in >100 mm of rain in a ~24-h period and >200 severe weather reports, respectively, during 30 June–2 July 2011. This period also featured 100 (104) daily maximum high (low) temperature records across the same region. These high-impact weather events occurred in the presence of an elevated mixed layer (EML) that influenced the development of the severe MCSs and the numerous record high temperatures. The antecedent large-scale flow evolution was influenced by early season Tropical Cyclone Meari over the western North Pacific. The recurvature and subsequent interaction of Meari with the extratropical large-scale flow occurred in conjunction with Rossby wave train amplification over the North Pacific and dispersion across North America during 22 June–2 July 2011. The Rossby wave train dispersion contributed to trough (ridge) development over western (central) North America and the development of an EML and the two MCSs over the upper Midwest United States. A composite analysis of 99 warm-season days with an EML at Minneapolis, Minnesota, suggests that Rossby wave train amplification and dispersion across the North Pacific may frequently occur in the 7 days leading up to EMLs across the upper Midwest. The composite analysis also demonstrates an increased frequency of severe weather and elevated temperatures relative to climatology on days with an EML. These results suggest that EMLs over the upper Midwest may often be preceded by Rossby wave train amplification over the North Pacific and be followed by a period of severe weather and elevated temperatures.

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Neil F. Laird
,
Caitlin C. Crossett
,
Catherine J. Britt
,
Nicholas D. Metz
,
Kelly Carmer
, and
Braedyn D. McBroom

Abstract

An investigation of lake effect (LE) and the associated synoptic environment is presented for days when all five lakes in the Great Lakes (GL) region had LE bands [five-lake days (5LDs)]. The study utilized an expanded database of observed LE clouds over the GL during 25 cold seasons (October–March) from 1997/98 to 2021/22. LE bands occurred on 2870 days (64% of all cold-season days). Nearly a third of all LE bands occurred during 5LDs, although 5LDs consisted of just 17.1% of LE days. A majority of 5LDs (56.5%) had lake-to-lake (L2L) bands, and these days comprised 43.5% of all L2L occurrences. 5LDs occurred with a mean of 26.1 (SD = 6.2) days per cold season until 2008/09 and then decreased to a mean of 13.8 (SD = 5.5) days during subsequent cold seasons. January and February had the largest number of consecutive LE days in the GL with a mean of 5.7 and 5.4 days, respectively. As the number of consecutive LE days increases, both the number of 5LDs and the occurrence of consecutive 5LD increase. This translates to an increased potential of heavy snowfall impacts in multiple, localized areas of the GL for extended time periods. The mean composite synoptic pattern of 5LDs exhibited characteristics consistent with lake-aggregate disturbances and showed similarity to synoptic patterns favorable for LE over one or two of the GL found by previous studies. The results demonstrate that several additional areas of the GL are often experiencing LE bands when a localized area has active LE bands occurring.

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