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Pavel Ya Groisman, Richard W. Knight, Vyacheslav N. Razuvaev, Olga N. Bulygina, and Thomas R. Karl


Significant climatic changes over northern Eurasia during the twentieth century are revealed in numerous variables including those affecting and characterizing the state of the cryosphere. In addition to commonly used in situ observations of snow cover such as snow depth and snow courses, synoptic archives in the former Soviet Union contain regular daily and semidaily reports about the state of the ground in the area surrounding the station. Information about frozen, dry, wet, ponded, and snow-covered land, and in the case of snow-covered land, about the characteristics of snow cover, is available in these reports. A new Global Synoptic Data Network (GSDN) consisting of 2100 stations within the boundaries of the former Soviet Union created jointly by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) and Russian Institute for Hydrometeorological Information (RIHMI) was used to assess the climatology of snow cover, frozen and unfrozen ground reports, and their temporal variability for the period from 1936 to 2004. Comparison with satellite measurements of snow cover extent is also presented.

During the second half of the twentieth century and over many regions in northern Eurasia, an increase in unfrozen ground conditions (5 days since 1956 over the Russian Federation) was observed. The most prominent changes occurred in the spring season in Siberia and the Far East north of 55°N during April and May by 3 to 5 days, which constitute a 15%–35% change in these regions compared to long-term mean values. Since the beginning of the dataset, surface temperature changes in high latitudes have not been monotonic. As a result, linear trend analyses applied to the entire period of observations can lead to paradoxical conclusions. Specifically, changes in snow cover extent during the 1936–2004 period cannot be linked with “warming” (particularly with the Arctic warming) because in this particular period the Arctic warming was absent.

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Alexander V. Chernokulsky, Igor Esau, Olga N. Bulygina, Richard Davy, Igor I. Mokhov, Stephen Outten, and Vladimir A. Semenov


A long-term climatology of cloudiness over the Norwegian, Barents, and Kara Seas (NBK) based on visual surface observations is presented. Annual mean total cloud cover (TCC) is almost equal over solid-ice (SI) and open-water (OW) regions of the NBK (73% ± 3% and 76% ± 2%, respectively). In general, TCC has higher intra- and interannual variability over SI than over OW. A decrease of TCC in the middle of the twentieth century and an increase in the last few decades was found at individual stations and for the NBK as a whole. In most cases these changes are statistically significant with magnitudes exceeding the data uncertainty that is associated with the surface observations. The most pronounced trends are observed in autumn when the largest changes to the sea ice concentration (SIC) occur. TCC over SI correlates significantly with SIC in the Barents Sea, with a statistically significant correlation coefficient between annual TCC and SIC of −0.38 for the period 1936–2013. Cloudiness over OW shows nonsignificant correlation with SIC. An overall increase in the frequency of broken and scattered cloud conditions and a decrease in the frequency of overcast and cloudless conditions were found over OW. These changes are statistically significant and likely to be connected with the long-term changes of morphological types (an increase of convective and a decrease of stratiform cloud amounts).

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Stefan Brönnimann, Rob Allan, Christopher Atkinson, Roberto Buizza, Olga Bulygina, Per Dahlgren, Dick Dee, Robert Dunn, Pedro Gomes, Viju O. John, Sylvie Jourdain, Leopold Haimberger, Hans Hersbach, John Kennedy, Paul Poli, Jouni Pulliainen, Nick Rayner, Roger Saunders, Jörg Schulz, Alexander Sterin, Alexander Stickler, Holly Titchner, Maria Antonia Valente, Clara Ventura, and Clive Wilkinson


Global dynamical reanalyses of the atmosphere and ocean fundamentally rely on observations, not just for the assimilation (i.e., for the definition of the state of the Earth system components) but also in many other steps along the production chain. Observations are used to constrain the model boundary conditions, for the calibration or uncertainty determination of other observations, and for the evaluation of data products. This requires major efforts, including data rescue (for historical observations), data management (including metadatabases), compilation and quality control, and error estimation. The work on observations ideally occurs one cycle ahead of the generation cycle of reanalyses, allowing the reanalyses to make full use of it. In this paper we describe the activities within ERA-CLIM2, which range from surface, upper-air, and Southern Ocean data rescue to satellite data recalibration and from the generation of snow-cover products to the development of a global station data metadatabase. The project has not produced new data collections. Rather, the data generated has fed into global repositories and will serve future reanalysis projects. The continuation of this effort is first contingent upon the organization of data rescue and also upon a series of targeted research activities to address newly identified in situ and satellite records.

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